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國防政策評論,第三卷,第三期,二○○三年春季
Taiwan Defense Affairs, Vol.3, No.3, Spring 2003

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美國如何在軍事上贏得二次波灣戰爭
How the Coalition Force Defeats the Iraqi


劉廣華
Kuang-Hua Liu

* 劉廣華博士,海軍上校,現為國防大學研編室主任。Dr. Kuang-Hua Liu, Navy Captain, Director,
Research & Publishing Office, National Defense University.


前言
Introduction

自二○○一年九一一攻擊事件之後,美國國家安全戰略有了極大的轉變,強調的是本土防衛與反恐戰爭。而在反恐戰爭大纛下的第一個對象就是窩藏賓拉登的阿富汗,在阿富汗戰役順利結束之後,邪惡軸心之一的伊拉克遂成為美國第二波反恐戰爭的主要目標。然事與願違的是,在經過大半年的外交折衝與國際協調仍無法獲得聯合國支持對伊拉克用兵之後,美國終於決定採取單邊行動,於伊拉克時間三月十九日下午五時三十二分對伊拉克發動所謂的「斬首攻擊」,意圖一舉格殺海珊,推翻海珊政權。隨後即發動大規模的「震撼威懾」行動,空襲與地面攻勢作戰行動齊頭並進。期間雖有短暫的時間因補給線過長而遭受伊軍小規模的伏擊,也有部分人員的傷亡,然基本上美軍的攻勢幾乎不受阻礙,長驅直入,也曾創下一日內推進一百七十公里的紀錄。開戰廿五天後的四月十四日,美軍攻入提克里特,中央司令部隨即宣佈主要作戰行動已經結束。而布希總統於五月一日於林肯號上的演說雖未明白指出戰爭已經勝利,然實際上亦等同於宣佈戰爭結束了。
Since the 911 attack in 2001, the US national security strategy has been changed greatly, focusing on homeland security and war on anti-terrorism. Under the banner of war on anti-terrorism, the first target was Afghanistan that harbored Bin Laden. After the end of the war in Afghanistan, Iraq, one of the Axis of Evil countries, became the major target of the second wave of US war on anti-terrorism. However, the US could not get the UN support of military operations in Iraq after diplomatic and international negotiations for more than 6 months. Nonetheless, the US decided to take action unilaterally and began “Decapitation attack” at 5:32 PM March 19, 2003, with the purpose of eliminating Saddam Hussein and overthrowing his regime. The large-scale “shock and awe” operation followed immediately with the air strike and ground warfare conducted simultaneously. The US offensive, setting a record of advancing against the enemy by 170 km in one day, was basically unobstructed throughout the operation except for small-scale ambushes and light casualties due to overstretched supply line. On April 14, 25 days after the beginning of the operation, the US troops captured Tikrit. CENTCOM declared that the major operation in Iraq was finished. President Bush’s speech aboard USS Abraham Lincoln on May 1 did not declare the victory of war in Iraq though, the war was virtually finished.

綜觀此次波灣戰爭,美國所發揮出來的絕對優勢軍力舉世無匹,所謂的世界唯一超強地位確實無庸置疑。然而經由現代視訊科技遠在千里之外透過媒體觀察作戰全程的世人仍不禁有許多疑團大惑不解。蓋一般分析家於戰前的共識是美軍獲勝絕無疑問,然基於沙漠氣候、沙塵暴、伊國全民抵抗意志、焦土策略、以及城鎮巷戰的實施等等因素,美國即便獲勝恐亦將付出相當代價。孰料出人意外的是預期中的組織抵抗並未出現,反而是號稱精英的共和衛隊憑空消失,伊國人民初期雖未簞食壺漿迎王師,卻也在美軍攻克巴格達之後,歡欣鼓舞的協助美軍推倒海珊銅像。此外,伊空軍戰機一架未見,T-72 戰車也是零星散見於各地,飛彈更只是象徵性的對科威特發射了數枚。更有甚者,整個領導階層也是集體失蹤,美軍迄今仍在零零星星的追捕中。亙作戰全程,伊拉克的作戰行動連游擊戰都算不上,反而比較像是有組織的棄守。
To make a comprehensive survey of the Second Persian Gulf War, no one can deny that, as the only super power, the US showed a military strength absolutely unrivaled. However, there are many questions unanswered to those who were closely observing the operation through the media. It was generally agreed among analysts that the US would pay a great price for its victory due to factors such as desert weather, sandstorm, Iraqi people’s determined will to fight, scorched earth policy, and city warfare. To most analysts’ surprise, not only the expected organized resistance did not occur, but also the elite Republican Guards disappeared. The Iraqi people did not welcome US troops as
expected in the early stage of the operation though, they did help topple Saddam’s statue with great joy after US troops entered Baghdad. What was more, not a single Iraqi airplane was seen, nor did T-72 tanks show up often. Even missile attacks on Kuwait were by no means serious. The most puzzling was that the entire Iraqi leadership was missing and is still hunted down by the US. Throughout the operation, the Iraqi resistance, if any, could not even be counted as guerrilla warfare. It looked much
like an organized rout.


本文旨在對美國在軍事上的作為進行分析與討論,試圖整理出美國在此次戰爭中的獲勝之道。以下將先對戰略目標與戰略構想、斬首行動、海、空作戰、地面作戰、特種作戰、心理作戰、後勤補給等面向作一簡略概述,繼而對此次戰役獲勝之因素進行分析,並對戰爭之啟發進行檢討。而由於在美軍未公佈相關作戰資料之前,所有資料幾乎僅能從公開來源獲得,也因此若干細節尚有待進一步資料出現後方得以進行。
This paper is aimed to make an analysis on the coalition military operations in Iraq and the ways the coalition won the victory. Aspects such as coalition strategic goals and concepts, “decapitation attack,” air and sea operations, ground operation, special force operation, psychological operations, and logistics will be briefly touched upon first. Thefactors contributing to the victory of war will then be analyzed. Finally, how we could learn from this war will be discussed. However, owing to the fact that most operation details are yet to be published, the references this paper can obtain are basically from
open sources and thus certain aspects of the operation will not be touched upon until further information is available.

戰略目標與戰略構想
Strategic goals and Concepts

從布希總統於二○○二年九月二十日宣佈的《美國國家安全戰略》中可知,美國在九一一事件之後其國家戰略已做了相應的調整,認為對發展大規模毀滅武器的敵對國家及恐怖組織具有發動先制攻擊的權利。1顯然「先制」的概念構成了對伊之戰的最基本指導。此外,從布希歷次的演講中,基本上亦可歸納出在戰略目標上美國對伊戰爭意在完成消除大規模毀滅性武器、推翻海珊政權、以及建立全民參與的伊拉克政府等目標。2也因此,在戰略構想上,不論是採行鮑爾主義的「目標明確、優勢兵力、速戰速決」,或者是所謂倫斯斐主義的「高科技、小兵力、高機動力」概念,此次戰役之實施必然係以高科技武器形成的優勢兵力掌握空優,大規模轟炸的方式摧毀伊軍重要指管通情設施,地面部隊則自南北兩面夾擊,迅速指向政經中樞的巴格達,迫敵決戰,進而在消滅敵軍主力之後肅清伊拉克全境,建立軍政府,再過渡至親美的文人政權。3
As seen from The National Security Strategy of the United States of America announced by President Bush on Sep. 20, 2002, US national security strategy has been changed since the 911 Incident. According to the strategy, the US has the right to conduct preemptive measures against hostile states or terrorist groups developing weapons of mass destruction (WMD).1 Obviously, the concept of “preemptive” became the basic guidance of war in Iraq. In addition, it can also be induced from speeches made by President Bush that US strategic goals of war in Iraq are the elimination of WMD, overthrow of Saddam regime, and establishment of a participatory Iraqi government.2 As a result, strategic concepts, whether derived from “clear objective, military superiority, and quick solution” of Powell Doctrine or from “high-tech, small force, and high mobility” of Rumsfeld Doctrine, must be embodied through the following steps: air dominance gained by the employment of high-tech weapon systems, large-scale air strike on the vital C4ISR of the Iraqi troops, converging ground attack from both northern and southern fronts to Baghdad, decisive battles compelled by the US side, elimination of remaining Iraqi troops after destroying Iraqi main force, the establishment of military government, and the transition to a friendly civilian government.3

觀乎作戰全程,除了戰役初期因獲得海珊所在之確切情資所發動的「斬首行動」顯得有些倉促,以及因土耳其拒絕借道,致使原應自北路夾擊的第四師滯留海上,造成只有南路第三師孤軍北上的狀況之外,此次美伊戰爭之實施,大體上並未超出其原定戰略目標與戰略構想的範疇。
Throughout the operation, except for the hastily launched “Decapitation attack” in the early stage of the operation due to the reliable information on Saddam’s whereabouts and the sea borne Fourth Division which should have launched from the northern front but was held up because Turkey refused to allow US troops to launch the attack from its territory, resulting in the Third Division’s advancing from south to north alone, the campaign was basically conducted within the range of the planned strategic goals and concepts.

斬首行動
Decapitation Attack

美國總統布希於三月十九日晚間(台北時間三月二十日十時三十二分)下令對伊拉克發動攻擊並明白表示,首波攻擊除係針對重要軍事目標外,也意在執行所謂的「斬首攻擊」以除掉伊拉克總統海珊。據報導,在歷經幾乎四小時的橢圓形辦公室高層會議後,終於作成是項決定。而布希總統之所以下定決心的原因在於中情局局長泰尼特與多位國防高階官員一再表示,若不立即動手則最佳的時機將會消失。4
President bush ordered the attack on Iraq in the evening of March 19 and clearly expressed that the first-wave attack was aimed at eliminating Iraqi President Saddam Hussein as well as striking at important military targets. It was reported that after a four-hour meeting in the Oval Office the decision was made because CIA Director Tenet and other high-ranking defense officials told the President that they could lose the “target of opportunity” if they did not act quickly.4

攻擊初起時計有四○枚衛星導引的戰斧巡弋飛彈分自紅海及波斯灣中的戰艦發射,另得以攜帶二枚二、○○○磅炸彈的F-117 隱形飛機亦參加行動,攻擊海珊與高階領導人、巴格達市中心、戰情系統、發電廠及各機場。直至三月二十日晚間十一時為止,聯軍總共發動六波攻擊。5
There were 40 satellite-guided Tomahawk cruise missiles fired from warships in Red Sea and Persian Gulf when the campaign started. F-117 stealth fighter carrying 22000-pound bombs also joined the mission, striking at Saddam and his leadership, center region of Baghdad, command and control systems, power plants, and airfields. The coalition had launched 6 waves of attacks by the evening of March 20.5

海、空作戰
Sea/Air Operations

繼斬首攻擊之後,美軍於三月廿三日起以代號「A-Day」行動全面展開海、空攻擊行動。分別部署於波灣、紅海、地中海的尼米玆號、小鷹號、杜魯門號、羅斯福號、林肯號、星座號,以及英軍皇家方舟號等航艦上之戰鬥機群分向巴格達、摩蘇爾、提克里特、及巴斯拉等城市展開密集攻擊。
After the “Decapitation attack,” the US launched overall sea/ air operations code-named “A-Day.” Fighters from USS Nimitz, USS Kitty Hawk, USS Harry S. Truman, USS Theodore Roosevelt, USS Abraham Lincoln, USS Constellation, and British HMS Ark Royal, which were deployed in Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and Mediterranean, conducted intensive attacks on Baghdad, Mosul, Tikrit, and Basra.

截至四月十四日主要戰鬥行動結束為止,美軍已執行約三二、○○○次之出擊任務,其中打擊架次約一二、五○○次、支援戰車出擊六、五○○次、支援空運六、○○○次、支援指管情蒐偵監二、一五○次、支援巴格達空中巡邏一、七○○次。此外,所有空中作戰計約使用了一五、○○○枚精準炸彈、七、一○○枚傳統炸彈、以及巡弋炸彈七○○枚以上。6整個空中攻擊行動自四月十一日之後開始減緩。
As of the end of major combat operations on April 14, the coalition had conducted 32,000 sorties, including 12,500 strike sorties, 6,500 tank-support sorties, 6,000 airlift sorties, 2,150 C4ISR-support sorties, and 1,700 Baghdad air patrol sorties. In addition, there were 15,000 precision bombs, 7,100 traditional bombs, and over 700 cruise missiles in total used in the air operations.6 The overall air strike mission slowed down after April 11.

地面作戰
Ground Operation

地面作戰為本次戰爭之主軸,在空中攻擊開始之後,由陸軍第三師、陸戰第一師、以及英軍第七旅組成的地面主攻部隊即自科威特進入伊境直指巴格達。聯軍於三月廿一日順利攻佔烏姆卡薩,並佔領通往巴斯拉道路。此時,英軍第七旅分兵攻打巴斯拉,美陸軍第三師與陸戰第一師則揮兵北上於三月廿二日推進至納西利亞。自三月廿二日至三月廿八日間,除了因伊軍在納西利亞週遭抵抗激烈之外,三月廿六日發生的沙塵暴也導致美軍攻勢受阻,期間甚至發生美軍後勤部隊於納西利亞南部遭伏擊,人員被俘事件。為免影響作戰進程,美軍第三師繼續挺進納吉夫,並於三月廿六日與伊軍在納吉夫發生激戰。陸戰第一師則於三月廿八日繞過納西利亞向庫特進攻。同時間,第三師於三月卅一日已攻抵卡巴拉,並於四月二日與伊軍麥迪那師發生激戰。第三師於四月五日攻佔巴格達機場後,與穿越共和衛隊阿尼達師防線的陸戰第一師於巴格達西郊會師,包圍巴格達。陸戰第一師並於四月七日遠繞巴格達北方,與第三師成南北夾擊之勢。於四月八日,美軍進入巴格達,推翻海珊銅像。
Ground operation played a vital role in war in Iraq. Following the air operation, the main attack force consisting of US Third Division, Marine First Division and UK 7th Brigade launched the ground operation from Kuwait, pushing forward directly to Baghdad. The coalition forces captured Umm Qasr on March 21 and occupied the roads leading to Basra. In the meantime, US Third Division and Marine First Division advanced north and arrived in Nasiriya on March 22 while UK 7th Brigade attacked Basra. From March 22 to 28, the advance of US troop was stopped due to fierce resistance of Iraqi troops around Nasiriya and severe sandstorm. During this period f time, US service forces were ambushed near Nasiriya and soldiers were captured. In order not to influence the operation tempo, US Third Division advanced to Najaf and had furious fight with Iraqi troops around Najaf. Marine First Division bypassed Nasiriya on March 28 and advanced to Kut. In the meantime, US Third Division arrived in Karbala on March 31 and had fierce fights with Iraqi Medina Armored Division on April 2. On April 5, the Third Division captured Baghdad Airport and rendezvoused at west suburb of Baghdad with Marine First Division, which earlier penetrated through the line of defense formed by Iraqi Al
Nida Armored Division. On April 7, Marine First Division moved to north of Baghdad, ready to launch a converging attack with the Third Division in the south. On April 8, US troops entered Baghdad; the statute of Saddam Hussein was toppled.


在北方陣線方面,由於土耳其拒絕借道,原本蓄勢待發的第四師經海道向科威特運動。美軍空降第一七三旅於三月廿七日於阿比爾附近建立空頭堡。同時間,庫德族游擊隊則於四月五日在美空軍支援下,佔領摩蘇爾東三十公里處的一座重要橋樑。美軍空降第一七三旅及庫德族游擊隊於四月八日亦在美空軍支援下奪取摩蘇爾北方三十公里處的戰略要點,並於四月十日對摩蘇爾發動攻擊。此外,美軍特種部隊與庫德族游擊隊亦於美空軍支援下於四月十一日奪取吉爾庫克。美軍空降第一七三旅及庫德族游擊隊則於四月十二日攻下摩蘇爾。同時,美陸戰第一師已於四月十三日進抵提克里特附近準備發動攻擊。四月十四日,在幾乎毫無抵抗的狀況下,陸戰第一師進佔提克里特廣場。伊南巴斯拉則由英軍於四月八日攻佔。7
In the northern front, US Fourth Division was transported to Kuwait by sea because of Turkey’s unwillingness to offer a launching pad for US troops. The 173rd Airborne Brigade set up an airhead close to Irbil on March 27. With the US air support, Kurdish guerrilla captured an important bridge located at 30 kilometers east of Mosul on April 5. The 173rd Airborne Brigade and Kurdish guerrilla, also under US air force support, captured a strategic point located at 30 kilometers north of Mosul, and launched attack on the city on April 10. In addition, US Special Forces, in cooperation with Kurdish guerrilla and support of US air force, captured Kirkuk on April 11. The 173rd Airborne Brigade and Kurdish guerrilla captured Mosul on April 12. Meanwhile, Marine First Division advanced to the area close to Tikrit, ready to launch attack. On April 14, Marine First Division entered Tikrit Square with virtually no resistance. In the southern front, the British troops captured Basra on April 8.7

特種作戰
Special Operations

早於二○○二年五、六月間,美軍就已經派出若干數量的特種作戰人員深入伊拉克境內,偵查伊軍部隊、政府機構、以及安全單位活動,於九月間則派遣約一五○人進入伊境。至開戰前,美軍在伊境特戰部隊已達五○○餘人。另此次戰爭美軍約投入四個大隊的特戰兵力,其中包括陸軍特戰部隊、陸軍特戰航空兵、海軍海豹部隊與特種艦艇分隊、空軍特戰飛機與特戰管制小組、以及心理與民事部隊。
As early as May/June, 2002, certain special forces were sent into Iraqi territory collecting information on Iraqi military, government, and security activities. In September 200, 150 more special forces soldiers were sent into Iraq. By the time of the start of war, there were more than 500 special forces soldiers in Iraq. Also joined the war were 4 special force groups, including Army Special Forces, Army Special Aviation Forces, Navy SEALs, and Special Naval Squadron, Air Force Special Aircraft and Special Control Group, and psychological warfare and civil affairs troops.

在戰爭發動之前,特戰部隊即已通過邊境監視以及向伊軍縱深滲透等方式蒐集大量戰略情資,以增加作戰行動之準確性與可靠性。另在行動發起之後,陸軍特戰部隊潛伏於伊軍地面部隊週遭觀察其動向,隨時提供重要情報;海軍特戰部隊則除了於行動初期掌握伊軍有限之海上活動之外,更於聯軍進攻後持續於沿海地區進行巡邏;空中特戰部隊則亙作戰全程擔任空中偵查與照相任務。
Before the war started, the US special forces have collected large amount of strategic intelligence by way of border surveillance and penetration into Iraq so as to increase the accuracy and reliability of operation. After the operation started, Army Special Forces lurked about Iraqi ground forces, observing their movements and provide US ground troops with important intelligence. Naval Special Forces continued coastal patrol after the commencement of war as well as closely watched limited Iraqi marine activities in the initial stage of war. Air Force Special Forces conducted air surveillance and photography missions throughout the operation.

此外,在策應主力作戰的行動上,特戰部隊除支援掃雷、搜救行動之外,更直接參與諸如破壞雷達陣地、雷區、攻擊伊軍指管機構、甚至於巴格達停電期間對伊拉克重要成員住所、行館展開全面之奇襲與捕殺任務。8
In addition to supporting main force operation missions such as min esweeping and search & rescue operations, US special forces also directly conducted operations such as destroying radar stations and minefields, attacking Iraqi military command and control posts, even surprise-attacking Iraqi leadership residences and hunting down Iraqi leaders in Baghdad during the blackout period.8

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