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  首頁 > 影音網>誰擁有南海主權?Who owns the South Sea?
誰擁有南海主權?Who owns the South Sea?

[轉載自:民報]

[謝鎮寬]於2020-07-28 00:07:07上傳[]

 




誰擁有南海主權?

川普驅逐共產黨員

川普總統於七月14日在白宮記者會,宣布簽署「香港自治法」,點名公佈那些玩法弄權,致使中國無法履行「中英聯合聲明」與「基本法」中,對港承諾的有關人士,及與這些人士有大量資金往來的外國金融機構。同時也宣佈終止過去給予香港的優惠待遇,因香港既已被中國撤銷一國兩制,自應與中國被一視同仁,不再享有特殊待遇,也不再能從美國出口敏感技術到香港。

川普政府已開始著手援引聯邦法律「移民與國籍法」架構,透過總統公告,禁止中國共產黨黨員及家眷到美國旅遊,甚至取消已在美國者的簽證並驅逐出境。根據統計,中國共產黨黨員人數高達9200萬人,加上眷屬可能高達2.7億人,這將是對中國政壇一劑極具震撼的打擊,因為中國高官都性黨,都有子女或親人在美國,其影響深遠
堪比斷交、力道驚人。

南海擴權定調非法

七月13日美國國務卿龐培歐針對南海發表聲明,指北京聲稱擁有南海大部分區域的離岸資源,為強加控制的霸凌行徑,是屬於完全非法的行為。北京在南海騷擾菲律賓漁場,和沿岸能源開發是違法行為;北京任何侵犯他國漁場與油氣資源開發的動作,剝削區域資源都是非法的行徑。龐說「中國無法為其南海九段線主張提出清楚法律依據,萬安灘臨越南外海,美濟礁與仁愛礁界屬菲律賓,曾母暗沙距馬來西亞56哩,距中國1000多哩;聲稱此處是中國最南端領土僅是政治宣傳手段,領土和海事主張毫無法律效力;沒有國家能主張擁有該水下領域,它們從來就不是中國的一部分。」

過去美國始終反對中國在南海的擴權,但這次是正式定調其為非法行徑,這不僅正式改變美國以前的模糊政策態度,同時也為美軍在南海向中國開戰,賦予取締非法為南海開戰提供了正當性。龐培歐的聲明深受南海周邊國家的認同與肯定,英國隨即宣佈將派遣伊麗莎白女王號航母到南海,以帶槍投靠行動配合與美、日即將進行的三國聯合軍演。

中國指美興風作浪

中國當然也不是吃素的,中國外交部發言人趙立堅,批評美國作為域外國家,頻繁派遣大規模先進軍艦軍機在南海大搞軍事化,是破壞區域和平穩定的麻煩製造者,敦促美方停止在南海問題上製造事端。另一發言人華春瑩說美國不是南海爭議當事者,卻頻頻插手南海問題,自己未批准《聯合國海洋法公約》,卻拿海洋法說事。台灣外交部亦表示,南海諸島屬於中華民國領土,中華民國對南海諸島及其相關海域享有國際法及海洋法上的權利。其國務委員兼外長王毅14日公開指責,美國違背其過去在南海爭議問題上不持立場的承諾,是蓄意挑撥中國與東協國家間的關係,企圖製造矛盾衝突破壞地區穩定,如此唯恐南海不亂,不斷興風作浪,還派出最先進的機艦耀武揚威,破壞南海和平穩定秩序誠屬危險,值得南海地區國家高度警惕。中國正積極串聯伊朗等國家,準備與美國展開一場硬碰硬的對抗。

台灣外交部於龐培歐聲明後,也向國際社會發表聲明回應,強調南海諸島屬於中華民國領土,中華民國對南海諸島及其相關海域享有國際法及海洋法上的權利,不容置疑。台灣外交部發言人歐江安在記者會上重申四點原則:一、南海爭端應依據國際法及海洋法,包括聯合國海洋法公約,以和平方式解決;二、台灣應納入多邊爭端解決機制;三、相關國家有義務維護南海航行和飛越自由;四、中華民國主張應以「擱置爭議、共同開發」方式處理南海爭端,且願在平等協商基礎上,和相關國家共同促進南海區域的和平與穩定,並共同保護及開發南海資源。

南海軍事化突顯中國霸權野心

其實中國所聲索的南海主權,及中華民國外交部所發表的聲明,是絲毫沒有任何法理依憑和基礎,不足採信也令人難以苟同。中華民國連台灣的領土主權都沒有,泥菩薩過江自身難保,還奢想南海主權,真是卡早睏卡有眠、幻古。想想,在二次大戰期間整個南海被日本佔領,它一直是被日本所擁有,直到1951年九月八日,日本透過舊金山和平條約第二條F款,宣佈放棄對南沙群島和西沙群島的所有治權、產權和債權。美國是被和約授權為日本領土的主要佔領權國,當然有權處理南海領域航行秩序。太平島是由美國於1946年,轉交中華民國軍事佔領,與台澎一樣蔣介石被麥克阿瑟將軍、第一號軍令授權軍事佔領台灣,但並沒有任何法律文件,記載顯示中華民國被授予台澎或南海主權。

中華民國於1947年12月自行繪制了十一段線圖,並於1948年2月公告編入其行政區域圖聲,稱擁有整個南海海域的所有權,然而那是在1946年十二月廿五日中華民國憲法制定之後,它根本就沒有被登載於,中華民國憲法自己所宣稱的固有疆域,事後更沒有任何法律文件或國際條約的授權,也沒有任何國民大會修改疆域領土記錄,可以證明中國擁有南海主權。中華人民共和國於1949年建國後,宣稱繼承中華民國擁有全中國領土,於1953年自行將南海十一段圖改為九段圖,但請不要忘了舊金山和約是到1952年4月28日才生效。2014年6月中國在其出版的中國地圖中,直接載入南沙群島,成為時下所稱的十段線圖。

中美必戰南海首選

然而設立於荷蘭海牙的國際常設仲裁法院,於2016年7月12日判決,裁定中華人民共和國不擁有從中華民國所宣稱十一段線,繼承所得九段線圖的歷史權利。判決宣告:整個南海沒有島、只有礁。島者擁有二百海浬專屬經濟海域,礁者最多只有十二海浬經濟專屬海域。判決發布後中國根本充耳不聞,中國外交部說,法庭的裁決是無效的,不具有任何約束力、中國不會接受、也不承認。問題關鍵是中國的聲明,國際社會沒人承認也不接受。這幾年在習近平的擴權主義下,在南海各礁岩上大事興建土木,蓋機場建跑道。現在還要控管通行該海域,所有船舶軍艦,也要禁止該海域臨近國家漁民的日常作業,及海上石油鑽探。儼然將整個浩瀚南海,面積有350萬平方公里海域納歸己有,壟斷了所有航權、石油、天然氣蘊藏資源和漁民生計。

然而正如龐培歐所說,國際社會斷然無法接受。為了維護世界航行自由,及南海周邊各國漁民生計,與確保海洋資源,英、美、日、台、印、澳等印太聯盟已逐步自然形成。如果中國仍然繼續我行我素,南海開火勢所難免。其實南海是美中較量最理想戰場,因為沒有居民不會傷及無辜百姓。浩瀚海域容得下,任何最新科技武器操兵砲火對壘,雙方都可以在寬闊海域上,展示亮相他們最先進的制敵殺手武器,所以如果中美必須一戰,相信南海會必然是軍事首選。

國際不承認中華民國存在

自古有言:上兵伐謀,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其下攻城。戰爭是人類社會解決爭端,最後萬不得已的下下策,真是已經沒有其他更好的選擇時,還是希望能把傷亡減到最低。或許是當前人類社會難逃的劫數,庚子年總是圍繞在動盪邊緣。1900庚子年有義和團之亂,引發了八國聯軍。1960年美國當時在任總統、艾森豪蒞臨台灣。2020庚子年,我們彷彿又來到戰爭邊緣。

四年前當南海仲裁案判決時,中華民國外交部鄭重表示,「仲裁階段未曾邀請我國參與,也沒徵詢我國意見,因此本案判斷對中華民國不具任何法律約束力」。其實在判決書中有明文清楚交代,為何中華民國未曾被邀請參與。它說中華民國是一個,1949年後已不存在的國家,因這個國家已經被中華人民共和國所繼承取代。自稱中華民國的台灣政府在該份判決書中,被稱為是中國的台灣當局(Taiwan Authority of China)。

南海主權不屬台灣

誰擁有南海主權?南海主權誰屬那是公領域,當然不是台灣說了算,更不是如馬英九所說,那是屬於中華民國所有。他7月15日還發文指責蔡英文沒有聲張主權。他說「2016年仲裁判決時,蔡英文嚴正回應,該案從未徵詢我方意見,仲裁判斷對太平島的認定,已經嚴重損及我南海諸島及其相關海域之權利,我們絕不接受。但這次對於美方的聲明,我外交部竟語帶曖昧的表示歡迎」。外交部是說「對於相關國家聲明各國對南海之主張應符合國際法規範,包括1982年聯合國海洋法公約,以及不承認與國際法相悖之主張,外交部對此表示歡迎,也促請相關國家將臺灣納入多邊爭端解決機制,以共同維護區域和平與穩定。」馬英九對國際事務的弱智寡識,令人難以苟同。

國際局勢瞬息萬變,如果我們無法務實地釐清台灣國際地位,我們將永遠被排斥在國際社會門外,無緣參加任何與判決台灣相關議題的國際會議,只能照單全收列強議決任人宰割。台灣當然不是中國的一省,台灣更不屬於任何一個中國,不論是中華人民共和國,或是中華民國不可分割的一部份。其實台灣早在1895年,就被永久割讓了。講主權要有真憑實據,台灣社會目前只擁有人民主權,但那不是領土主權。蔡英文總統已獲選連任,她的歷史史命就是必須在她第二任的任期內,清楚地、負責地告訴台灣人民,台灣目前真正的國際地位,中華民國究竟何時、依據哪紙國際條約,擁有台灣的領土主權?她要把台帶到那裡去:歸屬中國、不清不楚叫中華民國、或獨立自主叫台灣?讓全體人民有自知之明,號召海內外台灣人群策群力,才能凝聚共識、攜手打拼。把台灣建立成為一個,真正擁有領土主權、即國家主權的正常國家。台灣加油!

謝鎮寬
加州、海沃

https://www.peoplenews.tw/news/b9b8aacf-ff11-4f53-82cb-abd9e747069f
【專文】誰擁有南海主權?
文/謝鎮寬(加州、海沃) 2020-07-20 12:06

Who owns the South Sea?

Trump expelled CCP

President Trump announced at the White House press conference on July 14 that he had signed the "HK Autonomy Act" and plan to name those guys involved in juggling rights that prevented China from fulfilling its commitments to HK in the "Sino-British Joint Declaration" and the "Basic Law." And foreign financial institutions that have a lot of money dealings with these people. At the same time, it also announced the termination of the preferential treatment given to HK in the past. Since HK has been revoked by China of one country, two systems, it should be treated the same as China, no longer enjoy special treatment, and no longer be able to export sensitive technology from the United States to HK.

The Trump administration has begun to invoke the framework of the federal law "Immigration and Nationality Law", through the presidential announcement, prohibiting CCP members and their families from traveling to the US, and even canceling visas and deporting those who are already in the US. According to statistics, the number of CCP members is as high as 92 million, and adding their family members may be as high as 270 million. This will be a shocking blow to the Chinese political arena, because Chinese senior officials are named under CCP and have children or relatives in the US. Its impact is profound comparable to severing diplomatic relations, powerful hit.

South Sea power expansion is illegal

On July 13th, US Secretary of State Pompeo issued a statement of the South Sea, stating that Beijing’s claim to have offshore resources in most of the South Sea was a completely illegal act of imposing control. Beijing’s harassment of Philippine fishing grounds and coastal energy development in the South Sea is illegal; any violation of other countries’ fishing grounds and oil and gas resource development by Beijing and exploitation of regional resources are illegal. Pompeo said, "China cannot provide a clear legal proof for its claim of the nine-dash line in the South Sea. Wan'an Beach is located off the coast of Vietnam. The boundary between Mischief Reef and Ren'ai Reef belongs to the Philippines. James Shoal is 56 miles away from Malaysia and more than 1,000 miles away from China. It is China’s southernmost territory that is merely a means of political propaganda, and territorial and maritime claims have no legal effect; no country can claim to own this underwater realm, and they have never been part of China.”

In the past, the US has always opposed China’s expansion of power in the South Sea, but this time it is officially designated as an illegal act. This not only formally changes the previous ambiguous policy attitude of the US, but also provides good reasons for the US military to start a war against China in the South Sea, and stop all China’s wrong doing there. Pompeo’s statement has been deeply recognized and affirmed by the neighboring countries in the South Sea. The UK immediately announced that it would send the Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier to the South Sea to cooperate with the upcoming three-nation joint military exercise with the US and Japan.

China blamed the US stirred troubles

Of course, China is not a weak guy. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian criticized the US as an outsider for frequently sending large-scale advanced warships and aircraft to militarize the South Sea. It is a troublemaker that disrupts regional peace and stability and urges the US to stop the South Sea issue, causing trouble. Another spokesperson, Hua Chunying, said that the US is not a party to the South China dispute, but it frequently intervenes in the South Sea issue. It has not ratified the "UN Convention on the Law of the Sea", but is talking about the law of the sea. Taiwan’s MOFA also stated that the South Sea Islands belong to the territory of the ROC and it enjoys the international and maritime rights over the South Sea Islands and related waters. On the 14th, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi publicly accused the US of violating its past commitment to not taking a stand on disputes in the South Sea, deliberately instigating relations between China and ASEAN countries, and attempting to create conflicts and conflicts to undermine regional stability, fearing the South Sea. Without chaos, constantly making waves, and sending the most advanced aircraft and ships to show off their power, it is a danger to disrupt the peace and stability of the South Sea, and countries in the area should be highly vigilant. China is actively linking up with Iran and other countries in preparation for a head-on fight with the US.

After Pompeo’s statement, Taiwan’s MOFA also issued a statement in response to the international community, emphasizing that all South Sea island belong to the territory of the ROC. It enjoys the rights of the South Sea islands and related waters under international law and the law of the sea. Taiwan’s MOFA spokesperson Ou Chiang-an reiterated four principles at the press conference: 1. South Sea disputes should be settled peacefully in accordance with international law and the law of the sea, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea; 2. Taiwan should be included in the multilateral dispute settlement mechanism; 3. Related The country is obliged to maintain the freedom of navigation and over flight in the South Sea; 4. The ROC advocates that disputes in the South Sea should be handled in the form of "shelving disputes and joint development", and is willing to work with relevant countries to promote peace and stability in the South Sea on the basis of equal consultation, and Jointly protect and develop resources in the South Sea.

The militarization of the South Sea highlights China's ambitions

In fact, the South Sea sovereignty claimed by China and the statement issued by the MOFA of ROC have no legal basis or foundation at all, and it is hard to agree with the lack of acceptance. The ROC does not even have the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan, and the mud Buddha cannot even protect itself when crossing the river, and he still dreams of the sovereignty of the South Sea. Think about it, during the WWII, the entire South Sea was occupied by Japan. It was owned by Japan until September 8, 1951, when Japan renounced all right, title and claim to the Nansha and Paracel Islands through Article 2F of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. The US is authorized by the peace treaty as the principal occupying power of Japan's territory and certainly has the right to handle the order of navigation in the South Sea. Taiping Island was transferred to the ROC for military occupation by the US in 1946. Like Taiwan and Penghu, CKS was authorized by General MacArthur under the General Order No. 1 to military occupation of Taiwan, but there is no legal document showing that the ROC was granted the sovereignties of Taiwan, Penghu or the South Sea.

The ROC drew an eleven-dash line map by itself in December 1947 and incorporated it into its administrative area map in February 1948, claiming that it had the ownership of the entire South Sea, but that was way after December 25, 1946 ROC created its Constitution and had never registered on it. There was neither any legal document nor international treaty authorized, and there wasn’t any record showing the national assembly revised its territory owing the South Sea. After the founding of the PRC in 1949, claimed to succeed the ROC to own all Chinese territory. In 1953, it changed the eleven-dash map of the South Sea to the nine-dash map, but please don’t forget that the SFPT was not effect until April 28, 1952. In June 2014, China published the Nansha Islands directly in its national map, which became what is now called the ten-dash line map.

If China and the US must fight will start from the South Sea

However, the Permanent Court of Arbitration established in The Hague, the Netherlands, ruled on July 12, 2016 that the PRC does not have the historical right to inherit the nine-dash line declared by the ROC. The verdict declared: There are no islands, only reefs in the entire South Sea. The islanders have an exclusive economic area of 200 nautical miles, and the reefs have an exclusive economic area of 12 nautical miles at most. After the verdict was issued, China turned a deaf ear to it. The Chinese MOFA said that the court’s verdict was invalid and non-binding, and China would not accept or recognize it. The crux of the problem is China's statement, which no one in the international community recognizes or accepts. In recent years, under Xi Jinping’s power expansionism, civil engineering projects have been built on various reefs in the South Sea, airports and runways have been built. Now they control the passage of the waters, all ships and warships, and also prohibit the daily operations of fishermen from countries adjacent to the waters and offshore oil drilling. It seems they own the vast South Sea, which covers an area of 3.5 million square kilometers, and monopolizes all navigation rights, oil and natural gas reserves, and fishermen’s livelihoods.

However, as what Pompeo said, the international community simply cannot accept it. In order to safeguard the freedom of navigation in the world, as well as the livelihoods of fishermen of the countries around the South Sea, and to ensure marine resources, the Indo-Pacific alliances such as Britain, the US, Japan, Taiwan, India, and Australia have gradually formed naturally. If China continues to go its own way, the South Sea will inevitably open fire. In fact, the South Sea is the most ideal battlefield for the US-China war no residents will not hurt innocent people. The vast waters can accommodate, and any of the latest technological weapons and artillery battles, both sides can display their most advanced technical weapons in the wide seas. Therefore, if China and the US must fight, I believe the South Sea will be the ideal battlefield.

The international does not recognize the existence of the ROC

There is a saying the highest form of war is to balk the enemy’s plans; the nest is to prevent the junction of the enemy’s forces; then is to attack the enemy’s army in the field; and the worst is to besiege walled cities.
War is the last choice of human society to resolve disputes. When there is really no other better option, we still hope to minimize casualties. Perhaps it is the inevitable calamity of the current human society. The Gengtsu Year is always on the verge of turmoil. There was the Boxer Rebellion in the year of 1900, which triggered the Allied Forces of the Eight Nations. In 1960, the then President of the US, Eisenhower, visited Taiwan. In 2020, we are on the brink of war again.

When the South Sea arbitration case was judged four years ago, the MOFA of the ROC solemnly stated that "my country has not been invited to participate in the arbitration stage, nor has it been consulted. Therefore, the judgment of this case is not legally binding on the ROC." In fact, there is a clear statement in the judgment as to why the ROC has not been invited to participate. It said that the ROC is a country that has ceased to exist after 1949, because this country has been inherited and replaced by the PRC. The Taiwanese government, which claims to be the ROC, is referred to as the Governing Authority on Taiwan of China in this judgment.

Taiwan doesn’t own the South Sea sovereignty

Who owns the sovereignty of the South Sea? It is the public domain who owns the sovereignty of the South China Sea. Of course, it is not Taiwan’s final say. It is not, as Ma Ying-jeou said, that it belongs to the ROC. He also issued an article on July 15 accusing Tsai Ing-wen of not asserting her sovereignty. He said, "At the time of the 2016 arbitration judgment, Tsai Ing-wen solemnly responded that our opinion was never consulted in this case. The arbitration judgment on Taiping Island has seriously damaged the rights of our South Sea Islands and related waters, and we will never accept it. But this time, our MOFA welcomes the US statement in an ambiguous manner." The MOFA said, "For relevant countries’ declarations that all countries’ claims on the South Sea should comply with international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the non-recognition of claims contrary to international law, the MOFA welcomes this and urges relevant countries to include Taiwan in the multilateral Dispute settlement mechanism to jointly maintain regional peace and stability.” Ma Ying-jeou’s mental retardation on international affairs is hard to agree with.

The international situation is changing rapidly. If we cannot clarify the international status of Taiwan in a pragmatic manner, we will always be excluded from the international community. We will not be able to participate in any international conferences on issues related to the judgment of Taiwan. We can only accept what the powers had decided. Taiwan is certainly not a province of China, and Taiwan does not belong to any China, neither PRC nor an inseparable part of the ROC. In fact, Taiwan was ceded to Japan in perpetuity as early as 1895. Speaking of sovereignty requires real evidence. Taiwanese society currently only has the Popular Sovereignty, but that is not Territorial Sovereignty. President Tsai Ing-wen has been re-elected. Her historical mission is to clearly and responsibly tell the people of Taiwan during her second term of office that Taiwan’s current real international status and when and which international treaty the ROC is based on having the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan? Where does she want to take Taiwan: belonging to China, unclearly called it the ROC, or independently called as Taiwan? Let all people know themselves, and call on Taiwan people at home and abroad to work together to build consensus and work together. Establish Taiwan as a normal country that truly has territorial sovereignty, that is, national sovereignty. Go Taiwan!

John Hsieh
Hayward, California

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