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  首頁 > 影音網>探索台灣法理主權 Taiwan De Jure Sovereignty
探索台灣法理主權 Taiwan De Jure Sovereignty

[轉載自:民報]

[謝鎮寬]於2021-09-14 22:09:08上傳[]

 





探索台灣法理主權

緬懷歷史促進和平

2021年9月8日有一群台灣人,聚集在舊金山戰爭紀念歌劇院前廣場,去緬懷紀念舊金山和平條約簽署的日子,並探索台灣的法理主權。七十年前1951年的當天,歌劇院聚集了世界各國政要,其中包括當時日本首相吉田茂Shakira Yoshida, 蘇聯外交部副部長葛羅米柯Andrei Gromyko, 美國總統杜魯門Harry Truman, 國務卿艾奇遜Dean Acheson, 國務卿顧問杜勒斯John Foster Dulles等知名人士出席。杜魯門開宗明義說,和平會議是為了促進世界和平;然而葛羅米柯卻以,中華人民共和國未出席,而提出臨時動杯葛議程。最後主席艾奇遜,在葛羅米柯堅決要求下,動用表決;結果45比3,否決蘇聯動議,大會得以順利進行。

當天出席週年紀念會參與台美鄉親們,紛紛以個人對合約認知提出說明和呼籲,並表達參與這七十週年慶意義重大。當晚主辦單位,還邀請台美國各地熱心人士,舉行網路視訊座談會,並將所有活動錄影,共社會大眾參考批評指教。在座談中曾提到馬關條約、開羅宣言、波茲坦宣言及廢除不平條約等議題。特此提出說明:

台澎主權永久割讓

甲午年間中國與日本,因朝鮮事故而爆發戰爭,結果清兵大敗,只好割地賠款議和。台灣在中國政府眼裡始終是化外之地,鳥不語、花不香、男無情、女無義,瘴癘之地,割之不足惜。所以自1895年4月17日台澎被割讓後至今,已完全與中國田毋溝、水毋流毫無瓜葛。所以台澎主權根本從來就不屬於,1912年建立的中華民國,更不屬於1949年成立的中華人民共和國。

因為馬關條約清清楚楚寫著:
第二條:中國把遼東半島、台灣、澎湖群島之完整主權,即英國格林尼次東經百十九度起至百
            二十度止、北緯二十三度起至二十四度之間諸島嶼。該地城壘、兵器製造所及國有物
            永久割讓給日本。
第五條:割讓土地的居民能自由賣掉所有不動產及遷移,條約批准2年後該地的居民將被視為
            日本國民。

開羅宣言沒有共識

長年來中華民國政府,不論是國民黨或民進黨執政都說,日本已於開羅宣言中公開宣佈,要將台澎主權交給中國,但其實這完全是無稽之談。1943年11月22日至27日期間,美國羅斯福總統、英國邱吉爾首相及中國蔣介石大元帥三巨頭,確實曾在埃及開羅會談,討論戰後日本應有領土疆界。蔣介石透過宋美齡極力爭取,台澎主權回歸中國,但開羅會議只不過是盟國間意見的表達,主在討論如何確定戰後日本領土範圍。盟軍的集體認知是,要嚴懲日本於第一次及第二次大戰中所掠奪的領土它們必需釋還。他們雖各有所圖,畢竟也達成共識就是對日本戰後領土範圍的界定,應局限於,本州、北海道、九州、四國及其他由盟軍所確定的島嶼。最主要的共識就是,盟軍不得趁機擴張領土,台澎不是日本於二戰期間掠奪的土地,故蔣介石所提索取台澎主權,沒人同意不被採納。以至12日1日會議結束時,無人簽署所謂的開羅宣言,它淪為一紙,只是由當天開羅電台所播報的新聞稿而已。後來該同意部份被登錄於波茨坦宣言第八條,給予再次確認,且日本於降伏文書中公開承認同意,最後被登載於舊金山和平條約。

波茨坦協議、波茨坦公告兩碼事

波茨坦會議分上下兩場,上半場旨在議決歐洲戰場善後事宜,下半場則在討論太平洋戰區要如何善後。歐洲戰場於1944年6月6日諾曼地登陸後納粹節節敗退,1945年5月8日二戰歐洲戰場落幕,盟軍於1945年7月17日至8月2日,由美英蘇領袖杜魯門、邱吉爾與史達林,在波茨坦召開的會議,主要是討論決定如何處理歐洲戰場善後,他們簽署波茨坦協議Potsdam Agreement。會議期間曾休會兩天,等候英國大選揭曉,結果是工黨獲勝由艾德禮出任首相。他於7月26日接手,出席會議參與開會討論,一旦太平洋戰爭結束,要如何處理日本領土。會議達成決議即為大家所熟知的波茨坦公告Potsdam Declaration,限定日本二戰後領土範圍,依開羅會談所達成共識訂定之,蔣介石沒來開會,根本沒有參與提案、討論或爭取堅持事項,僅事後簽名以示同意。蘇聯也因八月九日才對日宣戰,故事後才補添簽名。蔣因錯失波茨坦會議,再加上國共內戰節節敗退,自然在國際會議發言的份量,就被大打折扣了。

台北條約中日終戰

依據舊金山和約第26條的授權,日本與中華民國於1952年4月28日簽訂台北條約、又名日華和約,旨在正式結束中國戰場的一切戰爭衝突,讓中日回歸正常友好外交事務的運作。台北條約主文共十四條:

第四條:撤銷中華民國與日本宣戰前的任何條約或協議。
          茲承認中國與日本國間在中華民國三十年即公曆一千九百四十一年十二月九日以前所締結之一切條約、專約及協定,均因戰爭結果而歸無效。

第五條:日本放棄辛丑條約對中國的所有權益。
            茲承認依照金山和約第十條之規定,日本國業已放棄在中國之一切特殊權利及利益,包括由於中華民國紀元前十一年即公曆一千九百零一年九月七日在北京簽 訂之最後議定書與一切附件及補充之各換文暨文件所產生之一切利益與特權;並已同意就關於日本國方面廢除該議定書、附件、換文及文件。

舊金山和約第 10 條 

中國政府自以為在1941年對日宣戰時,公告廢除日本對華所有不平等條約;看到台北條約第四條確認此事,就喜出望外自認為,已經把馬關條約撤銷,重新取得台澎主權。可惜書只讀一半,就舞文弄墨自我吹捧亂解一通。該約第五條清清楚楚地昭告世人,日本所放棄的權益只回溯至,1901 年 9 月 7 日的辛丑條約。正如舊金山和約第十條所寫:「日本放棄,一切有關中國之特別權利與利益,包括源自 1901 年 9 月 7 日簽署於北京之最後議定書條款、其附件、書簡與文件所衍生之對中國的利益與特權;同時,同意放棄前述議定書條款、其附件、換文與文件。」

集思廣益探索歷史

在這次週年紀念座談活動中,有提到一些議題值得大家仔細思考探索。以下是我個人的看法與詮釋:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaPqkY0_g7Q
            https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLniqxcmHbuNwNHnXFZgP8M7sG0Fayy0VF

一、美國與台澎的關係?
      美國黑旗艦隊貝里將軍團隊Commodore Matthew Perry ,於1854年在前往日本途中,曾因探索煤礦、美國紀念碑石材、及追查美國船難事件登陸基隆,這是台美關係最早的起點。1895年大清將台灣與澎湖割讓給日本的馬關條約,是由曾擔美國第32任國務卿John W Foster起草;而於1951年締結舊金山和平條約,是由他的外孫、後來擔任美國第52任國務卿的John Foster Dulles 起草。美國與今日台澎的法理地位息息相關,但可惜卻被有心人給予刻意模糊淡化了。

二、日本與台澎的關係?
      日本早在1336年至1573年室町時代,就與時稱高砂、高砂國、高山國的台灣有所往來。真正關係起源於,1895年4月17日的馬關條約。大清政府將台澎完整主權永久割讓給日本,一直到1951年9月8日簽署舊金山和平條約,才宣布放棄對台澎的所有治權、產權與債權,該和約於1952年4月28日生效。

三、中國與台澎的關係?
      台澎因與中國地緣相鄰,自然往來頻繁。史料正式記載,關係最早起源於1662年,鄭成功打敗荷蘭政府,正式入主台灣。統治21年後,由滿清主宰212年。接著由日本統治50年,自1945年9月2日蔣介石被麥克阿瑟的第一號將軍令,授權正式軍事佔領台澎;1949年國共內戰失利後,逃難亡命台澎。舊金山和約簽訂後,蔣家國民黨政權與美國簽訂協防條約保衛台澎。但共產中國卻一口咬定,台灣是國共內戰延伸的未竟殘局。中華民國與中華人民共和國,都雙雙認為台澎是其領土不可分割的一部份。

四、中華民國與台澎的關係?
      蔣介石政權於1945年10月25日代表盟軍,接受在台日軍投降,但卻將它詮釋為台灣光復,盟軍當然無人同意。蔣介石也於1949年1月12日,電文斥責陳誠,告誡台澎僅只是中華民國的託管地,不得放肆無忌大言不慚,說是民族復興之根據地。然而台澎在中國國民黨高壓軍事統治下,渡過戒嚴、警總無時不在的白色恐怖歲月。1996年在民主先生李登輝帶領下,開啟了台灣的民主制度,但是李先生的兩國論、陳水扁的一邊一國、馬英九的九二共識、蔡英文的全民共識,都侷限於中華民國、套牢台灣。

五、台灣人民與台澎的關係?
      台灣人民是指在台澎居住的合法居民,包括最早的原住民、日治時代台灣人、1949年隨蔣介石逃難台灣的中國人,與這些族群後裔,及陸續移居的新住民。總的來說,所有在台澎居住的人民,有人自稱是中國人、客家人、福洛人、山地人、原住民。但有超過75%比率,自認是台灣人。

六、金馬與台澎的關係?
      金門馬祖是目前中華民國管轄的領地,它們緊鄰中國,應是屬於中國領土。但因中華民國政府,仍然派駐軍隊防守,所以讓中國政府有藉口來收復國土,其目的是要併吞台澎。所以金馬與台澎,關係曖昧、格格不入。或許金馬應歸屬中華民國,他們可以選擇回歸中國;而台澎歸台灣人民,將來建立屬於自己的政府和國家。

七、聯合國與台澎的關係?
      聯合國成立於1945年10月24日,其安全理事會第530次會議,於1950年11月30日開會討論決議,台澎不屬於中國。聯合大會於1971年10月25日,通過第2758號決議,由中華人民共和國正式取代中華民國,在聯合國及其所屬國際社會機構的會籍,但不涉及安全理事會第530次會議的判決。

八、舊金山和約與台澎的關係?
      舊金山和約是繼1895年,根據馬關條約將台澎全部主權永久割讓給日本後,唯一明確規範台灣主權歸屬的國際條約。日本依據和約,正式宣佈放棄對台澎所有治權、產權與債權;和約也同時指定,美國為台澎主要佔領權國,握有台澎主權。

九、馬關條約與台澎的關係?
      滿清政府因甲午戰爭戰敗,與日本簽訂馬關條約;依約將台澎完整主權永久割讓給日本。條約第五條規範,割讓土地的居民,能自由賣掉所有不動產及遷移,條約批准2年後該地的居民將被視為日本國民。所以依國際法,台澎居民自1895年4月17日,至1952年8月5日出生者,都屬於日本國民。

十、綜合這些各種關係
      綜合以上:「美國與台澎的關係、日本與台澎的關係、中國與台澎的關係、中華民國與台澎的關係、台灣人民與台澎的關係、金馬與台澎的關係、聯合國與台澎的關係、舊金山和約與台澎的關係、馬關條約與台澎的關係」,大致可以詮釋為:「美國與台澎有法理關係、日本對台尚有剩餘主權關係、中國早已割讓台澎毫無關係、中華民國流亡台澎有代理軍事佔領關係、台灣人民居住台澎有待建國組織政府聲明確認主權關係、舊金山和約規範台澎今日國際地位關係、馬關條約中國正式宣告永久割讓台澎完整主權關係」簡單說台澎自1895年4月17日起,已經被中國拋棄,從來就不屬於1912年才建立的中華民國,更不屬於1949年才建立的中華人民共和國。中華民國憲法,既不被全體中國人採用,因他們有自己中華人民共和國的憲法,那又為什麼要強迫台澎人民去施行呢?

A. 國際對台政策還有誰在引用舊金山和約條文?
   舊金山和約已經是國際社會遵行的準則,美國依約善盡主要佔領權國責任,維護台灣的安全與繁榮。中國雖然處處霸凌台灣,但終究不敢逾越雷池一步。

B. 台灣主權到底誰屬?
   台灣主權目前由主要佔領權國美國握有,最終會交給真正代表台灣人民的政府。目前在台灣執政的民進黨政府自稱是ROC-Taiwan,並不是真正代表台灣人民的政府,台灣主權只能交給真正代表台灣人民的政府,而不是任何一個台灣個人。請注意主權是由代表人民的政府擁有,而不是任何個人。

C. 承認台灣為中國一部分的建交,條約牴觸和約,要聽哪一個(還是看拳頭大小)?
    國際社會都只「認知acknowledge」中國的一中原則,但沒人「承認recognize」或「接受accept」。權頭大雖然可以使人屈服,但國際條約目前還是大家遵行的準則。

D. 美國是主要佔領權國,中華民國是代管台灣,是歷史、是神話、還是進行式ing?
    美國是主要佔領權國,中華民國是代管台灣,是歷史、是事實、也是進行式ing。美國只承認中華民國,是目前在台灣的治理當局,The governing authority on Taiwan。

E. 哇!考倒師傅、舊金山和約是什麼碗糕?
    舊金山和約是繼1895年馬關條後,唯一規範台灣法理地位的國際條約。不要忘記,台灣在第二次世界大戰是,屬於日本的戰敗國。其最終法理地位,仍須依據國際法理程序來確認。美國是主要佔領權國,美國總統對台灣最終法理地位具有話語權,台灣當政者必須與美國密切配合。

謝鎮寬
加州、海沃

https://www.peoplenews.tw/news/d4bef01c-8651-44a9-a17a-55db4d6c5213
民報
【專文】探索台灣法理主權
文/謝鎮寬(加州、海沃) 2021-09-14 16:40

Explore Taiwan's de jure sovereignty

Tracing history and promoting peace

On September 8, 2021, a group of Taiwanese gathered at the square in front of the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House to commemorate the day of the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty and explore Taiwan’s de jure sovereignty. Seventy years ago, on the same date of 1951, the opera house gathered politicians from all over the world, including the then Japanese Prime Minister Shakira Yoshida, the Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, US President Harry Truman, and Secretary of State Dean Acheson, Acheson’s Advisor John Foster Dulles and other celebrities attended the event. Truman clearly stated that the peace conference was to promote world peace; however, Gromyko said that the Communist China did not attend and proposed a provisional boycott agenda. In the end, Chairman Acheson, at Gromyko’s resolute request, used a vote; the result was 45 to 3, vetoing the Soviet motion, and the conference proceeded smoothly.

The folks from Taiwan and the US who attended the anniversary party on that day expressed their personal understanding of the treaty and expressed the significance of participating in this 70th anniversary celebration. The organizer of the evening also invited enthusiastic people from all over Taiwan and the US to hold a webinar and record all the activities for the public's reference and comment. During the discussion, issues such as the Shimonoseki Treaty, the Cairo Declaration, the Potsdam Declaration and the abolition of the unequal treaty were mentioned. Hereby provide an explanation:

Ceded in perpetuity of Taiwan and Penghu’s full sovereignty

During the first Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, a war broke out between China and Japan due to the accident in North Korea. In the eyes of the Chinese government, Taiwan has always been a place of alienation. The birds are silent, the flowers are not fragrant, the men are ruthless, and the women are not righteous. It is indeed a badland territory, so it is nothing to cherish. Therefore, since the cession of Taiwan and Penghu on April 17, 1895, it has totally nothing to do with China. Therefore, the sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu have never belonged to the ROC established in 1912, neither the PRC established in 1949.

Because the Shimonoseki Treaty clearly stated:
Article 2: China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty the following territories, together with all fortifications, arsenals, and public property thereon: (b) The island of Formosa, together with all islands appertaining or belonging to the said island of Formosa. (c) The Pescadores Group all islands lying between the 119th and 120th degrees of longitude east of Greenwich and the 23rd and 24th degrees of north latitude.

Article 5: The inhabitants of the territories ceded to Japan who wish to take up their residence outside the ceded districts shall be at liberty to sell their real property and retire. For this purpose, a period of two years from the date of the exchange of ratifications of the present Act shall be granted. At the expiration of that period those of the inhabitants who shall not have left such territories shall, at the option of Japan, be deemed to be Japanese subjects.

There is no consensus in the Cairo Declaration

For many years, the Government of the ROC, whether it is the KMT or the DDPP, has said that Japan has publicly announced in the Cairo Declaration that it will hand over the sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu to China, but this is totally nonsense. From November 22 to 27, 1943, the three giants, President Roosevelt of the US, Prime Minister Churchill of the UK, and General Marshal Chiang Kai-shek of China did indeed meet in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss the territorial boundaries of Japan after the war. CKS tried his best to fight for the return of the sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu to China through Soong Meiling, but the Cairo Conference was only an expression of opinions among allies, and the main subject was to discuss how to determine the territorial scope of Japan after the war. The collective perception of the Allies is that to severely punish the territories plundered by Japan in the First and Second World Wars, they must be released. Although they have their own plans, after all, they have reached a consensus that the scope of Japan's post-war territory should be limited to Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku, and other islands determined by the Allied Forces. The main consensus is that the Allies must not take the opportunity to expand their territory. Taiwan and Penghu are not land plundered by Japan during WWII. Therefore, CKS's claim for the sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu was not accepted. Even at the end of the meeting on the 12th and 1st, no one signed the so-called Cairo Declaration. It was only a piece of draft paper, for a press release broadcast by the Cairo radio station that day. Later, the consent part was registered in Article 8 of the Potsdam Declaration and reconfirmed, and Japan publicly acknowledged its consent in the surrender document and was finally published in the San Francisco Peace Treaty.

The Potsdam Agreement and the Potsdam Declaration are different

The Potsdam Conference was divided into two sessions. The first half was to discuss the aftermath of the European theater, and the second half was to discuss how to deal with the aftermath in the Pacific theater. The European battlefield was retreated after the Normandy landing on June 6, 1944. The European battlefield of WWII ended on May 8, 1945. The Allied forces were led by Truman, Churchill, and Stalin, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. The meeting held in Potsdam, mainly to discuss and decide how to deal with the aftermath of the European battlefield, they signed the Potsdam Agreement. During the meeting, it was adjourned for two days, waiting for the announcement of the British general election. As a result, the Labor Party won, and Attlee became prime minister. He took over on July 26 and attended the meeting to discuss how to deal with Japanese territory once the Pacific War is over. The resolution reached at the meeting is the well-known Potsdam Declaration, which limits Japan’s post-WWII territorial scope. According to the consensus reached at the Cairo talks, CKS did not come to the meeting and did not participate in the proposal, discussion, or insistence. He only signed afterwards. Show consent. The Soviet Union only declared war on Japan on August 9 and added its signature after the story. Because Jiang missed the Potsdam Conference, coupled with the successive defeats of the KMT and the Communist Party in the civil war, naturally the weight of speeches at international conferences was greatly reduced.

The Taipei Treaty to end the war between China and Japan

Pursuant to the authorization of Article 26 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan and the ROC signed the Taipei Treaty, aka the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty on April 28, 1952, aiming to formally end all wars and conflicts on the Chinese battlefield and return China and Japan to normal friendly diplomacy. The operation of affairs. There are 14 articles of the Taipei Treaty:

Article 4: Revocation of any treaty or agreement between the ROC and Japan before the declaration of war.
It is recognized that all treaties, conventions, and agreements concluded before 9 December 1941 between Japan and China have become null and void as a consequence of the war.

Article 5: Japan renounces all rights and interests of the Xin-Chou Treaty to China.
            It is recognized that under the provisions of Article 10 of the San Francisco Treaty, Japan has renounced all special rights and its interests in China, including all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on 7 September 1901, and all annexes, notes, and documents supplementary thereto, and has agreed to the abrogation in respect to Japan of the said protocol, annexes, notes, and documents.

Article 10 of the San Francisco Peace Treaty 
Japan renounces all special rights and interests in China, including all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on 7 September 1901, and all annexes, notes and documents supplementary thereto, and agrees to the abrogation in respect to Japan of the said protocol, annexes, notes and documents.

Brainstorming to explore history Q & A

In this anniversary symposium, there are some topics mentioned that are worthy of careful consideration and exploration. The following is my opinion and interpretation:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaPqkY0_g7Q
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLniqxcmHbuNwNHnXFZgP8M7sG0Fayy0VF

1. The relationship between the US and Taiwan?
      Commodore Matthew Perry, the US black flagship team, was on the way to Japan in 1854. It landed in Keelung for exploring coal mines, American monument stones, and tracking down the American shipwreck. This was the earliest starting point for Taiwan-US relations. The Shimonoseki Treaty that the Qing Dynasty ceded Taiwan and Penghu to Japan in 1895 was drafted by John W Foster, who had served as the 32nd Secretary of State of the US. In 1951, the San Francisco Peace Treaty was drafted by his grandson John Foster Dulles, and later became the 52nd US Secretary of State. The US is closely related to the de jure status of Taiwan and Penghu today, but it is a pity that it has been deliberately obscured and downplayed by those who have different interests.

2. The relationship between Japan and Taiwan?
      As early as the Muromachi period from 1336 to 1573, Japan had contacts with Taiwan, which was then known as Takasago, Takasago, and Takasago. The true relationship originated from the Shimonoseki Treaty on April 17, 1895. The Qing government in perpetuity ceded the full sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan. It was not until the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty on September 8, 1951, that it renounced all right, title, and claim to Taiwan and Penghu. The peace treaty went into force on April 28, 1952.

3. The relationship between China and Taiwan?
      Due to its geographical proximity to China, Taiwan and Penghu naturally have frequent exchanges. According to official records, the relationship first originated in 1662, when Zheng Chenggong defeated the Dutch government and officially entered Taiwan. After 21 years of rule, the Manchu Dynasty ruled for 212 years. Then it was ruled by Japan for 50 years. Since September 2, 1945, CKS was authorized by MacArthur’s General Order No. 1 to formally occupy Taiwan and Penghu. After the defeat of the KMT and the CCP in 1949, he fled to Taiwan and Penghu. After the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, the Chiang’s KMT regime signed a defense treaty with the United States to defend Taiwan and Penghu. However, Communist China insisted that Taiwan was the unfinished endgame of the extension of the KMT and CCP civil war. Both the ROC and the PRC regard Taiwan and Penghu as an inalienable part of their territories.

4. The relationship between the ROC and Taiwan?
      On October 25, 1945, the CKS’s regime accepted the surrender of the Japanese troops in Taiwan on behalf of the Allied forces, but interpreted it as the restoration of Taiwan, and of course no Allied forces agreed. CKS also reprimanded Chen Cheng in a telegram on January 12, 1949, admonishing Taiwan, and Penghu that Taiwan and Penghu are only the trusteeship of the ROC, and that they must not speak unscrupulously, saying that it is a base for national rejuvenation. However, under the high-pressure military rule of the KMT, Taiwan and Penghu have survived the white terror years of martial law and the ever-present garrison command. In 1996, under the leadership of Mr. Democracy Lee Teng-hui, Taiwan’s democratic system was initiated. However, Mr. Lee’s two-state theory, Chen Shuibian’s one side one country, Ma Ying-jeou’s 1992 consensus, and Tsai Ing-wen’s national consensus were all confined to the ROC and locked in Taiwan.

5. The relationship between the Taiwan people and Taiwan?
      The people of Taiwan refer to the legal residents living in Taiwan and Penghu, including the earliest aborigines, Taiwanese during the Japanese rule, the Chinese who fled to Taiwan with CKS in 1949, and the descendants of these ethnic groups, as well as new residents who have migrated one after another. All the people living in Taiwan and Penghu, some people claim to be Chinese, Hakka, Huluo, mountain people, or aboriginal people. But more than 75% of them consider themselves Taiwanese.

6. The relationship between Kinmen/Matsu and Taiwan/Penghu?
      Kinmen/Matsu is currently a territory under the jurisdiction of the ROC. They are close to China and should belong to PRC territory. However, because the government of the ROC still sends troops to defend it, the PRC government has an excuse to regain the country, the purpose of which is to annex Taiwan and Penghu. Therefore, the relationship between Kinmen/Matsu and Taiwan/Penghu is ambiguous and incompatible. Perhaps the Kinmen/Matsu should belong to the ROC, and they can choose to return to China; while Taiwan and Penghu will return to the people of Taiwan, they will establish their own government and country in the future.

7. The relationship between the UN and Taiwan?
      The UN was established on October 24, 1945. The Security Council held its 530th meeting on November 30, 1950 and concluded Taiwan and Penghu do not belong to China. The Joint General Assembly passed Resolution 2758 on October 25, 1971. The PRC officially replaced the ROC in the UN and its membership in the international community, but it did not reflect the decision of the 530th meeting of the Security Council.

8. The relationship between the SFPT and Taiwan?
      The San Francisco Peace Treaty was the only international treaty that explicitly regulated the sovereignty of Taiwan after the permanent ceding of all sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan in accordance with the Shimonoseki Treaty in 1895. In accordance with the peace treaty, Japan formally announced its abandonment of all right, title, and claim to Taiwan and Penghu; the treaty also designated the US as the principal occupying power of Taiwan and Penghu and holds the sovereignty.

9. What is the relationship between Shimonoseki Treaty and Taiwan?
      Due to the defeat of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, the Qing government signed the Shimonoseki Treaty with Japan; in accordance with the agreement, the full sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu was ceded in perpetuity to Japan. Article 5 of the treaty stipulates that resident who were ceded could freely sell all their real estate and move. The residents of the area will be regarded as Japanese nationals 2 years after the ratification of the treaty. Therefore, according to international law, residents of Taiwan and Penghu from 17April 1895 to 5 August 1952 are Japanese nationals.

10. Conclude all these various relationships
      To sum up the above: "The relationship between the US and Taiwan, the relationship between Japan and Taiwan, the relationship between China and Taiwan, the relationship between the ROC and Taiwan, the relationship between the Taiwan people and Taiwan, the relationship between Kinmen/Matsu and Taiwan, the relationship between the UN and Taiwan, the relationship between SFPT and Taiwan, the relationship between Shimonoseki and Taiwan" can be roughly interpreted as: "The US has a de jure relationship with Taiwan, Japan still has a residual sovereignty relationship with Taiwan, China long ceded Taiwan has no relationship with Taiwan, the ROC in exile has a proxy military occupation relationship, the Taiwan people awaits the relationship to establish a government and state, the SFPT regulates the relationship between Taiwan and today's international status, and the Shimonoseki Treaty China officially declares ceded the full sovereignty of Taiwan in perpetuity to Japan has no relationship with Taiwan.”To put it simply, Taiwan and Penghu has been abandoned by China since April 17, 1895, and has never belonged to the ROC established in 1912, nor to the PRC established in 1949. The Constitution of the ROC was rejected by worldwide Chinese for they have their own constitution of the PRC, so why should they force the people of Taiwan to implement it?

A. Who else is citing the provisions of the SFPT in international Taiwan policy?
   The SFPT is already a norm followed by the international community. The US has fulfilled its responsibilities as the principal occupying power in accordance with the agreement and safeguarded Taiwan's security and prosperity. Although China bullies Taiwan everywhere, it dares not go beyond the thunder pool.

B. Who is the sovereign of Taiwan?
   Taiwan’s sovereignty is currently held by the principal occupying power, the US, and will eventually be handed over to the government that truly represents the people of Taiwan. The DPP government currently in power in Taiwan claims to be ROC-Taiwan, and it is not a government that truly represents the people of Taiwan. Taiwan’s sovereignty can only be given to a government that truly represents the people of Taiwan, not any individual Taiwanese. Please note that sovereignty is owned by the government representing the people, not by any individual.

C. The establishment of diplomatic relations with PRC recognizes Taiwan as part of China, it violates the peace treaty, which one should I listen to (or depends on the size of the fist)?
    The international community only "acknowledges" China's one-China principle, but no one "recognizes" or "accepts" it. Although great power can make people succumb, international treaties are still the norm that everyone abides by.
D. The US is the principal occupying power, and the ROC is the proxy governing Taiwan. Is it history, myth, or on going?
    The US is the principal occupying power, and the ROC is a proxy governing Taiwan. It is history, fact, and ongoing. The US only recognizes the ROC and is currently the governing authority on Taiwan. It is only a proxy governing authority on Taiwan.

5. Wow! It beats me. What is the SFPT?
    The SFPT is the only international treaty that regulates Taiwan's de jure status after the Shimonoseki Treaty in 1895. Don't forget that Taiwan was a defeated country belonging to Japan in WWII. Its final jurisprudence status still needs to be confirmed in accordance with international jurisprudence procedures. The US is the principal occupying power, and the President of the US has the right to speak of Taiwan's final legal status. Those in power in Taiwan must cooperate closely with the US.

John Hsieh
Hayward, California

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