設為首頁  加入最愛網
會員中心 贊助提供 徵求志工 線上電台 優惠精品 合作夥伴 關於我們 連絡我們
 
         
  首頁 > 影音網>撤職撤軍守護台灣 Salute to an Old Soldier
撤職撤軍守護台灣 Salute to an Old Soldier

[轉載自:民報]

[謝鎮寬]於2022-01-24 14:01:01上傳[]

 




撤職撤軍守護台灣
Salute to an old Soldier

致敬反共五星上將

142年前1880年1月26日,美國阿肯色州小岩城誕生一位,日後擔任二次世界大戰西南太平洋戰區的統帥、盟軍最高統帥,及美國陸軍僅有五位五星上將之一的先知。他曾發表過:「為子祈禱文」、「我必將回來」及「老兵不死只是凋零」等膾炙人口的名言。一生以軍人事業為榮,然而卻因韓戰時,與杜魯門總統對是否全力剿共、打擊來自鴨綠江對岸援兵的戰略有嚴重出入,而遭撤職,結束長達52年的軍旅生涯。他曾說過:「台灣是一艘不沉的航空母艦」、「失去台灣、就失去太平洋」等一針見血的先見之明。面對此刻台海風雲已界一觸即發之際,在他142歲冥誕到來時刻,讓我們來回顧這位值得,令世人及台灣人敬佩的反共五星上將。

出任西點軍校校長

道格拉斯、麥克阿瑟Douglas MacArthur,誕生於一個軍人世家。他的父親小亞瑟Arthur Jr. 18歲時,以少尉副官的身份,加入南北戰爭的北軍,也曾參與美菲戰爭,官拜駐菲美軍司令。道格拉斯在家排行老三,1899年6月13日,19歲時入學西點軍校;20年後於1919年至1922年期間,出任西點軍校校長。任職中結識當時,華府最為亮麗的社交名流,露易絲·克倫威爾·布魯克斯Henrietta Louise Cromwell,兩人於於1922年2月14日,在佛羅里達州棕櫚灘的別墅結婚。據聞露易絲是當時,新就任美國陸軍參謀長潘興將軍General Pershing的情婦,因吃味麥克阿瑟的婚事,所以道格拉斯於1922年6月,被調離校長職務。10月被派往菲律賓,就任新設置的馬尼拉軍分區司令,露易絲和她與前夫所生的兩個孩子亦同行。

殷切盼望為子祈禱

露易絲或因不慣於在菲律賓,遠離華府社交圈的生活,於1925年1月,她帶著自己近半個船艙的行李,從菲律賓回美,最後兩人於1929年離婚。麥克阿瑟並沒有,因婚姻生活不協調而喪志;反而專注軍旅公職,於1924年還曾平定「菲律賓偵查軍叛變」。1929年3月,胡佛就任美國第31屆總統,麥克阿瑟的職業軍旅有了轉機,11月21日就任陸軍參謀長。1935年10月卸職後,在羅斯福總統的許可下,接手美國駐菲軍事顧問團的任務。與家人及助理等人在搭乘胡佛總統號郵輪,由舊金山錢往馬尼拉航行途中,邂逅瓊妮、瑪麗、費爾克洛斯Jean Marie Faircloth;兩人於1937年4月30日,在於美國紐約市政大樓結婚,於當年12月31日他正式從美國陸軍退役,結束其38年服役生涯。他們於1938年2月21日有了獨生子、亞瑟·麥克阿瑟四世Arthur MacArthur IV。亞瑟四世出生,麥克阿瑟時已年滿58歲,老年得子喜出望外、其望子順利成長之殷切可想而知。故而感恩之餘、在其子未出生前,於1937年7月間,就向他所信奉的主禱告,寫下了一篇發人深省的「為子祈禱文A Pray for Son」:

主啊!懇求您賜給我一個兒子,他能夠堅強到認識自己的軟弱,能夠勇敢去面對驚恐自豪不屈地誠實去面對失敗;勝利時仍然保持謙遜溫和。

懇求您賜給我一個兒子,他的胡思不會取代行動;帶領他認識您,並且知道自己才是知識的基石。我祈禱,引導他不是要走在安逸舒適的坦途,而是要讓他經歷壓力、艱難與挑戰。藉此讓他學習在風暴中挺立,學習憐恤失敗的人。

懇求您賜給我一個兒子,他心地純潔,目標崇高,在指揮別人之前,先能駕馭自己;能夠妥善籌畫未來,但也永不忘記過去。

當他擁有以上的一切,我還要禱告,賜他充分的幽默感,使他能認真嚴肅,卻不會太苛求自己。賜他謙卑,讓他永遠牢記,真正的偉大在於平凡!真正智慧在於開擴的心胸!真正的力量在於溫和柔順!如此,身為父親的我,才敢低聲說:「我沒有枉度此生!」

蘇比克灣日軍轟炸

1941年7月26日,因日美關係惡化,羅斯福宣佈菲律賓軍納入美軍指揮體系、召回已引退的麥克阿瑟,以少將軍階回歸現役,任為「美國遠東陸軍」司令。1941年12月8日菲律賓當地時間3點30分,麥克阿瑟的參謀長理察·薩瑟蘭Richard K. Sutherland 接獲珍珠港遭日軍轟炸的消息,隨即告知麥克阿瑟。5點30分,美國陸軍參謀長喬治·卡特萊特·馬歇爾George Catlett Marshall命令麥克阿瑟啟用「彩虹5號」戰爭計畫,該計畫內容為以美國太平洋艦隊保衛海上交通線、地面部隊堅持4至6個月,再由太平洋艦隊運輸大批增援部隊與日軍決戰。然而當地時間12點30分,停駐大量主力軍用飛機的克拉克機場,與鄰近的戰鬥機基地伊巴機場,卻遭日軍第11航空艦隊轟炸,美國遠東空軍損失了35架B-17轟炸機中的18架、107架P-40戰鬥機中的53架以及超過25架其他各式飛機,大多是在地面上被炸毀,機場也受到嚴重破壞,人員傷亡則有80人死亡和150人受傷。1942年2月,日軍已逐漸縮緊包圍圈,麥克阿瑟於2月11日給羅斯福的信件中表示,自己將會與守軍「共赴存亡」。

麥帥誓言我將回去

1942年2月23日,麥克阿瑟收到陸軍參謀長馬歇爾的電報,指示羅斯福命令其立即前往民答那峨島,再從當地前往澳洲赴任「美英荷澳司令部」總司令新職。3月12日夜,麥克阿瑟與妻兒、參謀長薩瑟蘭等幕僚,搭乘魚雷快艇離開巴丹,成功抵達民答那峨島的德爾蒙機場,在當地搭上B-17轟炸機飛往澳洲。3月21日,麥克阿瑟乘火車抵至墨爾本。途中,麥克阿瑟於南澳洲特勞伊火車站發表演說:「美國政府命令我突破日軍的防線,從科雷希多來到澳洲,按照我的理解,我此次之行是為組織美國對日本的反攻,其中最重要的目標是解救菲律賓。我現在脫險而來,但我必將回去(I shall return)。」

截斷補給日軍苦戰

1943年1月,美英聯參會於卡薩布蘭卡會議上決定戰爭新一年的戰略,太平洋的戰略為確保新幾內亞和索羅門群島外,還要收復阿留申群島和進攻日軍在加羅林和馬紹爾群島的基地。至1943年底控制了布干維爾島大部份地區。1944年初,紐西蘭第3師攻佔格林島、3月20日海爾賽部奪取拉包爾西北部的卡維恩,封鎖了其右翼。3月中旬,麥克阿瑟攻佔新不列顛群島,完成拉包爾的左翼封鎖,之後麥克阿瑟撤出美軍部隊,僅留下澳軍部隊來牽制拉包爾。至此,日軍的南太平洋重鎮拉包爾已陷入被東西夾擊之下,13.5萬日軍陷入被圍困,拉包爾向週邊日軍的海空增援與補給也遭到截斷,日軍以俾斯麥群島構築的海空防線被盟軍所突破。

攻菲打台戰略爭辯

1944年美國參聯會,存在著「繞菲攻台打日」,或「先菲後台打日」的不同戰略爭執。7月下旬羅斯福在珍珠港召開會議,出席者除了總統本人外,還有麥克阿瑟、尼米茲與總統的參謀長威廉·D·李海。會上尼米茲力陳以海軍觀點,指盟軍應繞過菲律賓群島,直取台灣與硫磺島、沖繩等島嶼,完成佔領後便可實施進攻日本本土的行動。麥克阿瑟當即對尼米茲的計畫提出反對,因不僅戰略上菲島早已成為日軍南方交通線之樞紐,盟軍若予以繞過直撲台灣、硫磺島和沖繩,其損失將會大大超過佔領這些前哨島嶼所帶來的利益,也無法打擊日本的抵抗意志。相比之下,盟軍收復菲律賓所需付出的代價小得多,在心理層面的也比台灣更能打擊日本。

菲律賓人我回來了

麥克阿瑟另外還從政治面切入,稱1700萬的菲律賓人仍忠於美國,進攻台灣則不會有強大的游擊隊支援,且「菲律賓人認為自己在1942年被人出賣」因此有必要率領大軍反攻,否則將損害美國的國家威望,若對菲島繞開不理,被封鎖於當地的日軍勢必將奪取島上人民的糧食,使平民大眾蒙受悲慘與飢餓。另外自1944年春季起,日軍於中國發動「一號作戰」致使華東一帶機場與港口盡數被攻佔,進而降低了攻台的戰略意義,連同麥克阿瑟主張的政治因素,聯參會終於10月3日發布決議進攻呂宋、擱置進攻台灣一案(最終放棄)。1944年10月20日,克魯格率第6軍團登陸雷伊泰島,而麥克阿瑟則從輕巡洋艦「納什維爾號」監督行動,當天下午,因為缺乏登陸艇,麥克阿瑟只得涉水登陸,在踏上菲律賓後隨即發表演說: 菲律賓人民,我回來了!托萬能之主的福,我們的軍隊又站在菲律賓、這塊灑著我們兩國人民鮮血的土地上了。我們為摧毀統治你們的殘餘敵人,為恢復不屈不撓力量基礎、你們民族的自由,回來了!

麥帥一號軍事命令

隨著投下兩顆原子彈後,太平洋戰區情況急轉直下,日本天皇於1945年8月15日宣布無條件投降;杜魯門亦於當天任命麥克阿瑟為「盟軍最高統帥」,負責主持和安排日本受降,並實施隨後的日本佔領工作。麥克阿瑟要求日本政府,派出軍方代表團,前往馬尼拉商討受降事宜。他於9月2日,在「密蘇里號」戰艦上,主持接受日本投降儀式,並於當天頒布杜魯門總統,事先批准的第一號軍事命令(General Order No.1)、第一條a)款:在中國(滿洲除外)、台灣及北緯十六度以北之法屬印度支那境內的日軍高階司令官及所有陸、海、空軍及輔助部隊應向蔣介石大元帥投降。依據該命令蔣介石、中華民國及其黨徒,開始在台灣的軍事佔領,至今仍未明文撤除。

麥帥訪台籌劃剿共

1950年6月25日,北韓軍隊入侵韓國,韓戰爆發,麥克阿瑟於7月8日被任命為「聯合國軍總司令」,同時兼任駐日盟軍總司令、與美國遠東司令部總司令,連同所有韓國部隊皆由其指揮。7月30日這位遠東盟軍總司令,還特地自東京飛抵台北,與蔣介石交換對時局的看法。具體談了什麼不得而知,但他事後確實曾提出建議,要將已退守台灣的國民黨軍投入朝鮮戰場。但聯參會與麥克阿瑟,針對是否該切斷北韓補給延長線,有著不同的看法。麥克阿瑟主張以美國先進優勢軍備,給予北韓徹底瓦解殲滅。9月15日美軍陸戰第1師成功登陸仁川,當天僅21人陣亡,仁川登陸算是麥克阿瑟的一次重大勝利。然而,9月30日,金日成參加了中華人民共和國建國一週年的招待會,並在會上要求中國派遣部隊入朝。毛澤東幾經考慮後決定出兵,因避免與美國發生全面戰爭,派出部隊冠之「志願軍」之名,即中國人民志願軍,連同朝鮮部隊共同由彭德懷指揮。1950年10月16日,志願軍先頭部隊已經由集安祕密進入北韓。19日晚,中共大部隊通過鴨綠江入朝,不宣而戰,其規模壓倒聯合國軍:雙方人數比例為5:1。美國參戰兵力約30萬、中國190萬。1950年10月25日,志願軍向大韓民國第2軍展開進攻,韓軍三個師損失所有裝備潰逃,而聯合國軍在北進的過程中第8軍團與第10軍的缺口隨著邊界擴大,位於第8軍團右翼的韓軍崩潰的同時,志願軍也襲擊了該軍團的側翼,後者因此被重創。雙方自1950年10月25日起至1951年6月10日前後,有五次大規模的戰役。

力陳剿共慘遭撤職

麥克阿瑟認為中國已全面參戰,主張大舉增兵,還公開宣揚戰爭擴大化的觀點,主張對中國東北實施包括核子武器在內的大規模轟炸,但杜魯門與其支持者認為此舉不會結束戰爭,而一旦蘇聯干預朝鮮戰場,美軍勢必將轟炸海參崴,戰爭將因此擴大,日本也會受到蘇聯的報復性攻擊。在李奇威的努力下,聯合國軍重新恢復了戰力,於1951年1月26日發動「霹靂行動」,成功扭轉了雙方的攻守狀態。麥克阿瑟則再度重提對中國全面開戰,主張為防止聯合國軍遭到突破,應封鎖中國沿海、用砲火與空襲摧毀中國的戰爭工業,還要將已退守至台灣的國軍投入朝鮮戰場。然而杜魯門採取的政策是,只有當中國攻擊朝鮮以外的美軍,才會將戰爭升級。1951年4月11日,杜魯門起草向麥克阿瑟下達的命令,由布萊德雷簽名發布:「身為合眾國總統和三軍統帥,我非常遺憾地解除你作為盟軍最高統帥、聯合國軍總司令、遠東總司令和遠東美軍司令的職務。你需立即將指揮權移交馬修·李奇威中將,同時授權你發布必要命令前往想去的地方旅行。我的替換原因會在你收到上述命令的同時公之於眾,並納入下一條信息。」

老兵不死只是凋零

撤職消息透過商業無線電廣播到東京,而麥克阿瑟收到此消息時正在大使館招待客人午餐,麥克阿瑟聞訊後面無表情,僅向身旁的妻子表示「兩人終於可以回家了」。4月12日,麥克阿瑟離開美國駐日使館,驅車前去搭乘已改名為「巴丹號」星座式座機,約有25萬日本人在通往機場的沿路夾道向麥克阿瑟道別。4月19日,麥克阿瑟於國會聯席會議發表告別演說,這也是他最後一次在官方場合露面,麥克阿瑟講述自己在與杜魯門有關韓戰問題的分歧,並為自己的立場所辯護,演講還被喝彩聲和鼓掌聲打斷了50次,他最後說道: 我即將結束52年的軍旅生涯。我在世紀之交以前參軍,圓了我少年時代的希望與夢想。自從我在西點軍校的(大平原)操場上宣誓以來,世界已發生翻天覆地的變化,而這些希望與夢想很早就被遺忘了。但我仍然還記得當年流行的一首軍歌,唱起來倍感自豪⋯「老兵不死、只是逐漸凋零」。正如這首歌,我這個老兵現在也要結束我的軍旅生涯,將要凋零,上帝的光明讓我這個老兵看清了自己的職責,這個老兵曾經努力盡職,再見。

奉令行事一代名將

麥克阿瑟本可以像,1920年代的比利·米謝爾將軍那樣,要求軍事法庭公審,這種審判結果通常是不確定,很有可能會認定他無罪,並且命令他復職。但他選擇不去挑戰,與他意見相左的上司杜魯門,而且他在接獲撤職命令時也即刻表示服從,這就是盡責軍人的本色。但70年已經過去了,當世人今天回顧這段歷史,如果美國當時依麥克阿瑟所擬,一舉殲滅北韓和中共,相信世局早已為之改觀。一生以軍職生活為榮、為傲的麥克阿瑟,最後竟然是在他最擅長的戰場、朝鮮戰爭中遭受撤職,真是情何以堪!

撤軍撤僑入籍歸屬

一場戰爭的結束撤軍、撤僑,是必經的過程。1895年甲午戰爭結束,馬關條約第五條明文規定
,給台灣居民兩年遷居選擇期;看是要回歸中國當滿清人,或要留下當日本人。1951年舊金山和平條約,日本只宣佈放棄台灣澎湖的治權、產權和債權,並沒有給時已入籍日本的台灣人選擇居留權。不盡令人質疑,二次戰爭的軍事佔領,是否已經結束?前些時阿富汗戰爭結束後的撤軍撤僑,彷彿讓人們看到二戰後台灣的身影。

中華民國要代表誰

1949年12月10日蔣介石與其國民黨軍,在國共內戰失利後,在美國協助下他們撤離逃亡到台灣。當時他已下野,根本不具有任何官職,但卻於1950年3月1日復行視事,毫無法源依據明顯違憲。而且於1950年7月30日,受到麥克阿瑟到訪的加持。唯不知,一直在台灣被沿用到現在的中華民國國,它究竟要代表誰,中國或台灣?如果是中國,那中華人民共和國又要代表誰?要代表台灣,卻無任何法源。國際社會根本不承認今日中華民國是一個主權國家,他們要捍衛、要守護的是台灣,絕不是中華民國。

戰雲密佈守護台灣

此刻台灣本土與海峽上空,正醞釀著前所未有的壓力和緊張。習大大為了要鋪排,在中國共產黨第廿次全國代表大會上,給自己無任期的加冕典禮,正摩拳擦掌躍躍欲試,準備拿台灣來祭旗,隨時要出手併吞台灣。以中國國民黨為首的藍營人士,接二連三、連續在台灣被廣大選民唾棄後,也正徬徨猶豫,不知是要帶槍回老家投奔中國,還是痛改前非,融入台灣落地生根。還有一群自認為有天大本事,可以翻雲覆雨的騎牆派變色龍,穿戴白裏透紅大衣,正邁開大步想去收刮藍營空出的勢力版圖。在台灣要穩住與中共惡鄰抗衡的實力,確實受到嚴厲地挑戰。拜登自阿富汗毫無章法的撤軍,更是令人不寒而慄;所幸此刻國際社會反共意識的力量,正逐日甦醒。希望我們都能謹記,麥克阿瑟於70年前就已經提告的警示:「失去台灣、就失去太平洋」。讓我們以台灣存亡為己任,攜手來捍衛台灣。讓它不但成為,貨真價實的「不沉航空母艦」,更是照亮國際世界的自由燈塔。台灣加油!

謝鎮寬
加州、海沃

https://www.peoplenews.tw/news/22ffc18f-b82f-4d6f-9904-64c526efdad2
民報
【專文】撤職撤軍守護台灣(上)
文/謝鎮寬(加州、海沃) 2022-01-18 12:36

https://www.peoplenews.tw/news/e2a62229-54d3-4134-b409-fb84040e462d
【專文】撤職撤軍守護台灣(下)
文/謝鎮寬(加州、海沃) 2022-01-19 09:55

Salute to an old Soldier

Tribute to the anti-communist five-star general

142 years ago, on January 26, 1880, a man was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, USA, and he would serve as the commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater of WWII, the supreme commander of the Allied Forces, and the prophet, one of only five five-star generals in the U.S. Army. He has published such well-known spiritual legacies as "Prayers for my Son", "I shall return" and "Old soldiers never die”. He was proud of his military career all his life. However, during the Korean War, he had a serious conflict with President Truman's strategy of whether to bump the CCP entered from the other side of the Yalu River, and was dismissed from his post, ending his 52-year military career. He once said: "Taiwan is an unsinkable aircraft carrier", "If you lose Taiwan, you will lose the Pacific". In the face of the moment when the situation in the Taiwan Strait has been triggered, and at the eve of his 142-year-old birthday, let us review this worthy, anti-communist five-star general who is admired by the world and Taiwanese.

Principal of West Point Military Academy

Douglas MacArthur was born in a military family. Father, Arthur Jr. at age of 18, as a second lieutenant, he joined the Northern Army in the Civil War. Douglas was the third son in the family. On June 13, 1899, he entered West Point Military Academy at the age of 19; 20 years later, from 1919 to 1922, he served as the principal of the West Point Military Academy. During his tenure, he met the most beautiful socialite in Washington at the time, Henrietta Louise Cromwell, and the two married on February 14, 1922, at their villa in Palm Beach, Florida. It is said that Louise was the mistress of General Pershing, the newly appointed U.S. Army Chief of Staff at the time. Douglas was transferred from the position of principal in June 1922 because of the taste of MacArthur's marriage. In October, she was dispatched to the Philippines to take up the post of commander of the newly established Manila Military Division, along with Louise and her two children from her ex-husband.

Eagerly looking forward to praying for his son

Louise may not be accustomed to living in the Philippines where far from the social circle of Washington. In January 1925, she returned to the US from the Philippines with nearly half cabin load of her luggage. The two divorced in 1929. MacArthur did not lose heart because of the incongruity of his marriage life; instead, he focused on military and public service, and in 1924 he even quelled the "Philippine Scout Rebellion". In March 1929, Hoover took office as the 31st President of the US, and MacArthur's career in the military had a turnaround. On November 21, he took office as the Army Chief of Staff. After resigning in October 1935, with the permission of President Roosevelt, he took over the task of the US military advisory group in the Philippines. On the way from San Francisco to Manila on the cruise ship President Hoover with family members and assistants, he met Jean Marie Faircloth; the two married on April 30, 1937, in the city of New York, USA. On December 31 of that year, he officially retired from the U.S. Army, ending his 38-year service career. They had their only son, Arthur MacArthur IV, on February 21, 1938. When Arthur IV was born, MacArthur was 58 years old already, and he was overjoyed at the old age, and you could imagine of his ardent hope that his son would grow up smoothly. Therefore, in addition to being grateful, before his son was born, in July 1937, he prayed to the Lord he believed in, and wrote a thought-provoking "A Prayer for Son":

Build me a son, oh Lord, who will be strong enough to know when he is weak, and brave enough to face himself when he is afraid; one who will be proud and unbending in honest defeat, and humble and gentle in victory.

Build me a son whose wishbone will not be where his backbone should be; a son who will know Thee and that to know Thee is the foundation stone of knowledge.

Lead him, I pray, not in the path of ease and comfort, but under the stress and spur of difficulties and challenge. Here let him learn to stand up in the storm; here let him learn compassion for those who fail.

Build me a son whose heart will be clear, whose goal will be high; a son who will master himself before he seeks to master other men; one who will learn to laugh, yet never forget how to weep; one who will reach into the future, yet never forget the past.
And after all these things are his, add, I pray, enough of a sense of humor, so that he may always be serious, yet never take himself too seriously. Give him humility, so that he may always remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength.
Then I, his father, will dare to whisper, “I have not lived in vain.”

Japanese bombing of Subic Bay

On July 26, 1941, due to the deterioration of Japan-U.S. relations, Roosevelt announced that the Philippine Army would be incorporated into the U.S. military command system, recalled MacArthur, who had retired, and returned to active duty with the rank of major general as the commander of the "U.S. Far Eastern Army". On December 8, 1941, at 3:30 local time in the Philippines, MacArthur's chief of staff, Richard K. Sutherland, received the news that Pearl Harbor had been bombed by the Japanese and immediately informed MacArthur. At 5:30, U.S. Army Chief of Staff George Catlett Marshall ordered MacArthur to launch the "Rainbow 5" war plan, which was to defend the sea lines of communication with the U.S. Pacific Fleet and insist on 4 to 6 months later, many reinforcements would be transported by the Pacific Fleet to fight the Japanese decisively. However, at 12:30 local time, Clark Airport, where many main military aircraft are parked, and the neighboring fighter base IBA Airport, was bombed by the Japanese 11th Air Fleet, and the U.S. Far East Air Force lost 18 of 35 B-17 bombers, 53 of 107 P-40 fighters, and more than 25 other aircraft of various types, mostly was bombed on the ground. The airport was also severely damaged, and 80 people were killed and 150 injured. In February 1942, the Japanese army had gradually tightened the encirclement, and MacArthur stated in a letter to Roosevelt on February 11 that he would "live and die" with the defenders.

MacArthur declared I shall return

On February 23, 1942, MacArthur received a telegram from Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff, instructing Roosevelt to order him to immediately go to Mindanao, and then from there to Australia to take up the new post of commander-in-chief of the "US-British-Dutch-Australian Command". On the night of March 12, MacArthur, his wife and children, Chief of Staff Sutherland and other staff left Bataan by torpedo boat and successfully arrived at Delmon Airport in Mindanao, where they boarded a B-17 bomber and flew to Australia. On March 21, MacArthur arrived in Melbourne by train. On the way, MacArthur delivered a speech at Troy Railway Station in South Australia: "The U.S. government ordered me to break through the Japanese defense line and come to Australia from Corregidor. According to my understanding, my trip was to organize the U.S. against Japan. Counter-offensive, the most important goal of which is to rescue the Philippines. I am here now, but I shall return.”

Cut off supplies to the Japanese army

In January 1943, the US and the UK decided at the Casablanca meeting to decide the strategy for the new year of the war. The Pacific strategy was to ensure that New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, but also to recover the Aleutian Islands and attack the Japanese in the Caroline and Marshall Islands. base. By the end of 1943, it controlled most of Bougainville Island. At the beginning of 1944, the New Zealand 3rd Division captured Green Island, and on March 20, the Haier Sai Division captured Kavieng, northwest of Rabaul, and blocked its right flank. In mid-March, MacArthur captured the New British Isles and completed the left-wing blockade of Rabaul. After that, MacArthur withdrew the American troops, leaving only the Australian troops to contain Rabaul. So far, Rabaul, an important town in the South Pacific of the Japanese army, has been under attack from the east and west, and 135,000 Japanese troops have been besieged. Rabaul's sea and air reinforcements and supplies to the surrounding Japanese troops have also been cut off. The line of defense was breached by the Allies.

Debate over attacking of the Philippines or Taiwan first

In 1944, in the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, there were different strategic disputes about "circling the Philippines to attack Taiwan and then Japan" or "first attacking the Philippines then Taiwan and Japan". In late July, Roosevelt held a meeting at Pearl Harbor. In addition to the president himself, there were MacArthur, Nimitz, and the president's chief of staff, William D. Lehigh. At the meeting, Nimitz said from a naval point of view that the Allies should bypass the Philippine Islands and directly take Taiwan, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and other islands. MacArthur immediately objected to Nimitz's plan, because not only was the Philippine Island strategically the hub of the Japanese line of communication in the south, but if the Allies bypassed and attacked Taiwan, Iwo Jima and Okinawa, the losses would be much greater than those of occupying these islands. The benefits brought by the outpost islands could not dampen Japan's will to resist. In contrast, the Allied forces had to pay a much smaller price to retake the Philippines, and psychologically, they were more able to strike Japan than Taiwan.

People of the Philippines: I have returned

MacArthur also made a political cut, saying that the 17 million Filipinos were still loyal to the US, and there would be no strong guerrilla support for attacking Taiwan, and that "the Filipinos thought they were betrayed in 1942", so it was necessary to lead a large army to counterattack, Otherwise, the national prestige of the US will be damaged. If the Philippine Island is bypassed and ignored, the blocked Japanese army will surely seize the food of the people on the island, causing the civilians to suffer misery and starvation. In addition, since the spring of 1944, the Japanese army launched "Operation No. 1" in China, which resulted in the capture of all airports and ports in East China, thus reducing the strategic significance of attacking Taiwan. Together with the political factors advocated by MacArthur, the Joint Participation Conference was finally held on October 3. Issued a resolution to attack Luzon and shelved the case of attacking Taiwan (finally abandoned). On October 20, 1944, Kruger led the 6th Corps to land on Reyte Island, while MacArthur supervised the operation from the light cruiser "Nashville". After landed the Philippines he made a speech: People of the Philippines: I have returned. By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil—soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people.

MacArthur’s General Order No.1

With the dropping of two atomic bombs, the situation in the Pacific Theater took a turn for the worse. The Emperor of Japan announced an unconditional surrender on August 15, 1945; Truman also appointed MacArthur as "Allied Commander-in-Chief" on the same day, responsible for presiding over and arranging for Japan's surrender, and implementing the subsequent of the Japanese occupation work. MacArthur asked the Japanese government to send a military delegation to Manila to discuss the surrender. On September 2, on the USS Missouri, he presided over the acceptance ceremony of Japan's surrender, and on the same day issued President Truman's pre-approved General Order No.1: a. The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa and French Indo-China north of 16 north latitude shall surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.

MacArthur visited Taiwan planning to strike CCP

On June 25, 1950, the North Korean army invaded South Korea and the Korean War broke out. On July 8, MacArthur was appointed as the "Commander-in-Chief of the United Nations". All South Korean troops are under his command. On July 30, the commander-in-chief of the Far Eastern Army also flew to Taipei from Tokyo to exchange views on the current situation with Chiang Kai-shek. It is not known exactly what he talked about, but he did suggest afterwards that the KMT army that had retreated to Taiwan should be thrown into the Korean battlefield. But the Joint Chiefs of Staff and MacArthur have different views on whether to cut off the North Korean supply extension line. MacArthur advocated the complete disintegration and annihilation of North Korea with the advanced military superiority of the US. On September 15, the 1st U.S. Marine Division successfully landed in Inchon. Only 21 people were killed that day. The Inchon landing was considered a major victory for MacArthur. However, on September 30, Kim Il-sung attended a reception for the first anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, where he asked China to send troops into the DPRK. After several deliberation, Mao Zedong decided to send troops. To avoid a full-scale war with the US, he sent a unit named "Volunteer Army", that is, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army. Together with the North Korean troops, it was commanded by Peng Dehuai. On October 16, 1950, the vanguard of the Volunteer Army had secretly entered North Korea from Ji'an. On the evening of the 19th, the CCP entered the DPRK through the Yalu River, undeclared war, and its scale overwhelmed the UN army: the ratio of the two sides was 5:1. The United States has about 300,000 troops and China 1.9 million. On October 25, 1950, the Volunteer Army launched an attack on the 2nd Army of the Republic of Korea. The three divisions of the Korean Army lost all equipment and fled, while the gap between the 8th Army and the 10th Army of the United Nations Army in the process of advancing north expanded with the border, located in the 8th Army. While the Han army on the right flank collapsed, the volunteers also attacked the flank of the regiment, which was severely damaged. From October 25, 1950, to June 10, 1951, the two sides had five large-scale battles.

Urging airstrike but was fired

MacArthur believed that China had fully participated in the war, advocated a massive increase in troops, and publicly advocated the expansion of the war, and advocated large-scale bombing of Northeast China, including nuclear weapons, but Truman and his supporters believed that this would not end the war, and Once the Soviet Union intervenes in the Korean battlefield, the US military will inevitably bomb Vladivostok, the war will expand, and Japan will also be retaliated by the Soviet Union. Thanks to Ridgway’s efforts, the UN army regained its combat power and launched "Operation Thunderbolt" on January 26, 1951, successfully reversing the offensive and defensive state of both sides. MacArthur once again reiterated the all-out war against China, advocating that to prevent a breakthrough by the United Nations forces, China's coast should be blocked, China's war industry should be destroyed with artillery and air strikes, and the national army that had retreated to Taiwan should be thrown into the Korean battlefield. Truman's policy, however, was to escalate the war only if China attacked U.S. forces outside North Korea. On April 11, 1951, Truman drafted an order to MacArthur, signed and issued by Bradley: " I deeply regret that it becomes my duty as President and Commander-in-Chief of the United States military forces to replace you as Supreme Commander, Allied Powers; Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command; Commander-in-Chief, Far East; and Commanding General, U.S. Army, Far East. You will turn over your commands, effective at once, to Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway. You are authorized to have issued such orders as are necessary to complete desired travel to such place as you select. My reasons for your replacement, will be made public concurrently with the delivery to you of the foregoing order, and are contained in the next following message.”

Old soldiers never die they just fade away

The news of the relief was broadcast to Tokyo through commercial radio, and MacArthur was entertaining guests at a luncheon at the American embassy when he received the news. MacArthur was expressionless after hearing the news, only telling his wife beside him that "We two can finally go home." On April 12, MacArthur left the US embassy in Japan and drove to take a constellation plane that had been renamed the "Bataan". About 250,000 Japanese people said goodbye to MacArthur along the road leading to the airport. On April 19, MacArthur delivered a farewell speech to a joint session of Congress. This was his last official appearance. MacArthur spoke about his differences with Truman on the Korean War and defended his position. The speech was also applauded. After 50 interruptions with applause, he finally said: I am closing my 52 years of military service. When I joined the Army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away." And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Goodbye.

General obeyed the Order

MacArthur could have requested a public court martial like that of Billy Mitchell in the 1920s. The outcome of such a trial was uncertain, and it might well have found him not guilty and ordered his reinstatement. But he chose not to challenge his boss Truman who disagreed with him, he immediately obeyed when he received the relief order. This is the true nature of a conscientious soldier. But 70 years have passed. When the world looks back on this history today, if the United States had annihilated North Korea and the CCP in one fell swoop, as MacArthur planned, I believe the world situation would have changed for a long time. MacArthur, who was proud and proud of his military life all his life, was finally dismissed in the battlefield where he was best at, the Korean War. What a shame!

Nationality changes after military withdrawal

At the end of a war, the withdrawal of troops and overseas compatriots is a necessary process. After the Sino-Japanese War ended in 1895, Article 5 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki clearly stipulated, to give Taiwan residents a two-year relocation period; it depends on whether they want to return to China as Manchus or stay as Japanese. In the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951, Japan only announced to renounce the governance rights, property rights and creditor's rights of Penghu, Taiwan, and did not give Taiwanese who were naturalized in Japan at the time the right of abode to choose. There is no doubt that the military occupation of the WWII has ended. Some time ago, the withdrawal of troops and overseas compatriots after the end of the Afghan war seemed to let people see the shadow of Taiwan after WWII.

Who does the ROC represent?

On December 10, 1949, Chiang Kai-shek, and his KMT army, after their defeat in the China civil war, evacuated and fled to Taiwan with the assistance of the US. At that time, he had been retired and had no official position at all, but he returned to office on March 1, 1950, which was obviously unconstitutional without any legal basis. And on July 30, 1950, it was blessed by MacArthur's visit. I just don't know, who is the ROC that has been used in Taiwan until now, who is it going to represent, China or Taiwan? If it is China, who does the PRC represent? To represent Taiwan, there is no legal source. The international community simply does not recognize that the ROC today is a sovereign country. What they want to defend and protect is Taiwan, not the ROC.

Tension cover Taiwan Strait

At this moment, unprecedented pressure and tension are brewing over Taiwan and the Strait. To plan, at the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Xi Jinping is gearing up for his coronation without a term of office. He is ready to invade Taiwan as scapegoat of his greedy, and he will act to annex Taiwan at any time. After being cast aside by most voters in Taiwan one after another, the blue-team led by the KMT are also hesitating and painic, not knowing whether to bring their guns back to their hometown to defect to China, or to reform their past wrongs and integrate into Taiwan as new home. There is also a group of wall-riding chameleons who think they have great ability and can turn clouds and rains. Wearing red coats with white linings, they are taking big strides to capture the power territory vacated by the blue team. In Taiwan, it is indeed a severe challenge to maintain the strength to contend with the CCP's evil neighbors. Biden's unruly withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan is even more chilling; fortunately, the power of the international community's anti-Communist consciousness is awakening day by day. I hope we can all remember the warning that MacArthur sued 70 years ago: "If you lose Taiwan, you will lose the Pacific." Let us take Taiwan's survival as our own responsibility and join hands to defend Taiwan. It will not only become a genuine unsinkable aircraft carrier, but also a beacon of freedom that illuminates the international world. Come on, Taiwan!

John Hsieh
Hayward, California

Advertisements