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  首頁 > 影音網>外交說帖騙很大 A big lie of the diplomatic note
外交說帖騙很大 A big lie of the diplomatic note

[原著]

[謝鎮寬]於2022-05-09 21:05:05上傳[]

 




外交說帖騙很大
A big lie of the diplomatic note

靜候外交部回文賜教
Respecting a reply from MOFA

2022年4月28日,是舊金山和約生效滿70週年,台灣的最終國際地位,也再度成為輿論焦點。中國國台辦說,擁有台灣主權。中華民國外交部說,中華民國台灣是主權獨立國家,台灣從來不是中華人民共和國的一部分。似乎這兩個自稱代表中國的政府,都爭著說擁有台灣的領土主權;但中華人民共和國,是從建國到現在徹頭徹尾,與台灣毫無瓜葛。所憑藉就是,聯合國於1971年10月25日所達成的第2758號決議,判定中華人民共和國,是當前世上中國唯一的合法政府代表,並當場驅逐蔣介石代表非法佔據的聯合國席次。該決議絲毫沒有碰觸到台灣的主權歸屬,雖然中華人民共和國合法繼承,中華民國在聯合國的中國席位,但並沒有取得台灣與澎湖的領土主權,因為中華民國從來就不曾擁有過台灣的主權。

然而中華民國外交部至今仍,在其官網上仍然標著,2017年6月20日所公告的聲明稿:
「台灣的國際法地位」說帖。現在就讓我逐一來檢視,其所言的真假與虛實。

一、前言
「臺灣是中華民國的領土」,是一項絕對符合歷史與國際法的主張。民國34年(西元1945年)9月9日,中華民國政府在南京接受日本的戰敗投降,同年10月25日又在台北中山堂接受日本臺灣總督的投降後,旋即宣布恢復台灣為中華民國的一省,三個月後並恢復台灣人民的中華民國國籍,回溯自民國34年10月25日生效。換言之,中華民國從民國34年10月25日起,即在法律上(de jure)與事實上(de facto)行使對臺灣的領土主權。此一恢復主權的事實,於民國41年(西元1952年)4月28日中華民國與日本簽訂《中日和約》後,得到確認。

事實:
1945年10月25日,在台北公會堂舉行的受降典禮,是依據盟軍最高統帥麥克阿瑟將軍,所發佈第一號將軍令指示,陳儀被蔣介石所委任負責受降事宜的全權代表、中國陸軍總司令何應欽將軍,指派為在臺灣受降代表,去接受日本駐台總督、兼日本陸軍第10方面軍司令官安藤立吉將軍的投降典禮。因為戰爭還沒有結束,和平會議也一直到六年後,才在舊金山召開並簽署和平條約。所謂的光復節,其實就是欺世盜名的無稽之談;台灣根本沒有被光復,只是淪為更淒慘,被大屠殺的軍事佔領。1952年4月28日所簽署的台北條約被稱為中日和約,旨在落實結束日本與中國的戰爭,隻字未提台灣主權的轉移。

二、臺灣主權歸還中華民國的法律依據及事實
清光緒21年(西元1895年),清廷在中日甲午戰爭中戰敗。同年4月17日,中日兩國在日本下關簽訂《馬關條約》(Treaty of Shimonoseki),其第2條規定中國應將遼東半島、臺灣及其附屬島嶼及澎湖列島割讓予日本。6月2日中日雙方代表李經方與樺山資紀在基隆外海日本軍艦上辦理臺灣、澎湖及附屬島嶼的割讓、接收手續,日本並於壓制臺灣人民全島長達五個多月激烈的武裝反抗後,展開50年的殖民統治。

事實:
馬關條約是,中國早在1895年就授權,正式將台灣及澎湖的完整主權,永久割讓給日本;而不是日本於第二次世界大戰中,所掠奪的土地。

二次大戰結束,臺灣主權從日本手中歸還中華民國,此一轉變源於日本發動對華侵略戰爭。民國26年(西元1937年)7月7日,日本軍隊在河北省宛平縣發動蘆溝橋事變,對中國不宣而戰。10天後,國民政府蔣中正委員長發表演說,宣示抗戰到底決心,自此中華民國不屈不撓獨自抗戰四年。民國30年(西元1941年)12月8日日本偷襲珍珠港,美國海軍死傷慘重,美國立即對日宣戰。中華民國政府隨即在次日對日本、德國與義大利等軸心國宣戰,並宣布中日之間一切條約、協定、合同一律廢止;《馬關條約》當然包括在內。

事實:
國際條約不是單方面說廢就廢,必須要有換文照會來追認。馬關條自1895年簽署後,至今仍然有效。日本在台北和約、或中日合約,及舊金山合約中,都清楚標註,日本只放棄自1901年辛丑條約後,在中國所享有的特權和利益。

民國32年(西元1943年)12月1日中、美、英三國發表《開羅宣言》(Cairo Declaration),具體要求戰後日本「須將竊自中國的東北四省、臺灣與澎湖歸還中華民國」(…all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China.)

事實:
開羅宣言,只是羅斯福、邱吉爾與蔣介石三巨頭,針對戰後如何規劃日本領土的意向表達。雖然蔣介石一再要求,要將台澎主權回歸中國,但因台澎不是日本於二戰期間所掠奪的土地,而是依據馬關條約,正式割讓而取得的合法領土,所以最終會談沒有決議,無人簽名背書;發布當天,也無人在場,只是經由開羅電台,以新聞播報而已。

民國34年(西元 1945年)年7月26日中、美、英三國領袖發布《波茲坦公告》(Potsdam Proclamation),》其第8條重申「《開羅宣言之條件必須貫徹實施」(The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out…)。

民國34年(西元1945年)8月14日,日本接受《波茲坦公告》,宣布無條件投降,並於同年9月2日在美國密蘇里軍艦上簽署《日本降伏文書》(Japanese Instrument of Surrender)。該文書第1條中載明「茲接受美、中、英、蘇四國政府領袖於1945年7月26日於波茲坦所發表及所列舉之條款。(We,… hereby accept the provisions in the declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, China and Great Britain on July 26, 1945, at Potsdam, and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics…」換言之,《波茲坦公告》第8條有關《開羅宣言》之條件必須貫徹實施,係日本於《降伏文書》中所承諾之事項,日本當然必須履行,將東北四省、臺灣、澎湖歸還中華民國。

事實:
波茲坦會議主要是,為結束歐洲戰場所召開的和平會議,下半場於1945年7月26日開會討論,如何結束太平洋戰場時,蔣介石根本不在場,所以現場並沒有討論台澎主權的歸屬議題。波茲坦公告第8條重申「開羅宣言之條件必須貫徹實施,是指日本的領土範圍日本的主權,須被限制在本州、九州、北海道和四國以及三國政府所決定其他小島之內。」日本降書,是日本確認,願意遵照波茲坦公告無條件接受,悉聽同盟國決議發落、任憑處置。

不論《開羅宣言》、《波茲坦公告》或《日本降伏文書》,中華民國均將之視為具有條約效力的法律文件。美國政府除將《開羅宣言》與《波茲坦公告》編入《美國條約及其他國際協定彙編》(Treaties and Other International Agreements Series)外,並將《日本降伏文書》收入《美國法規大全》(Statutes at Large)。是以,就國際法而言,《開羅宣言》、《波茲坦公告》與《日本降伏文書》皆係具有約束力的法律文件。

事實:
不論《開羅宣言》、《波茲坦公告》、《日本降伏文書》及美國條約,及其他國際協定彙編,徹頭徹尾沒有隻字片語提到,要將台澎主權授予中國,或中華民國。

民國34年(西元1945 年)10月25日,日本臺灣總督於台北向中華民國政府投降。同日,中華民國政府宣布恢復對臺灣、澎湖列島之主權。嗣後,中華民國政府開始有效治理臺灣、澎湖及附屬島嶼:民國35年1月12日,明令恢復臺灣、澎湖居民之中華民國國籍,並回溯至民國34年(西元1945年)10月25日生效;又如開始推行民主制度,例如民國35年(西元1946年)在臺灣舉辦省縣參議會選舉,隔年臺灣省行政長官公署改為臺灣省政府。

事實:
1946年1月12日,中華民國政府行政院,擅自下令更改台灣人國籍,是屬於國際戰犯行為當時就受到英國駐華大使館抗議因為和平會議尚未召開台灣當時仍屬於日本領土中國只是被授權軍事佔領蔣介石甚至於1949年1月12日還發電報痛責陳誠不該自我吹捧蔣說台灣法律地位與主權,在對日和會未成以前,不過為我國一托管地之性質,何能明言做為剿共最後之堡壘與民族復興之根據也,豈不令中外稍有常識者之輕笑其為狂囈乎。

民國38年(西元1949年)12月,中華民國中央政府播遷臺灣。從民國34年到38年(西元1945年到1949年),中華民國在臺灣有效行使主權之作為,國際社會均無異議。例如民國 39年(西元1950年)1月5日美國總統杜魯門(Harry Truman)發表聲明稱:「1943年12月1日的開羅聯合聲明中,美國總統、英國首相及中國主席宣稱,他們的目的是要將日本竊自中國的領土,例如福爾摩沙(臺灣),歸還中華民國。美國政府於1945年7月26日簽署的波茨坦公告中,宣告開羅宣言的條件應予施行。這個宣言的條款於日本投降時為日本接受。遵照上述宣言,福爾摩沙移交給蔣介石委員長。在過去四年內,美國與其他同盟國均接受中國在該島行使權力。」

事實:
1950年1月5日杜魯門總統所發表的公開聲明,旨在向中國示好,傳達美國不介入中國內戰衝突。雖然美國將繼續向台灣提供經濟援助,但美國的軍事援助和建言將停止,這向國際社會表達,面對中國新變局的態度,美國重申對華採取開放政策,不在中國境內獲取任何勢力範圍,或建立外國控制制度,不在中國境內取得特殊權利或特權。然而,杜魯門1950年1月5日的「袖手旁觀聲明」,早就被他1950年6月27日的台灣「主權未定聲明」所取代。不論是開羅公開聲明、波茨坦公告或日本降書,都是在處理有關日本終戰後的討論過程,而舊金山合約才是最後定讞的結論。

臺灣光復七年之後,民國41年(西元1952年)中華民國與日本簽訂之《中日和約》,僅係以條約形式再次確認臺灣之領土主權歸還中華民國。實際上,該和約簽訂與否,並不影響中華民國對臺灣之主權,所影響者僅係中華民國與日本戰後正常外交關係之開展。當《中日和約》簽署時,臺灣人民早已是中華民國國民,且已慶祝臺灣光復七次了。

事實:
舊金山和約的簽訂,當然嚴重地關係到,台灣應有的最終法理定位。把受降典禮曲解成台灣光復,那才真是台灣那些、對國際法沒有絲毫概念者的羞恥。

三、《舊金山和約》、《中日和約》與臺灣主權歸屬
二次大戰結束後,中國發生內戰,民國37年(西元1948年)戰局逆轉,中共漸取得優勢;民國38年(西元1949年)10月1日,中共宣布建國;同年12月,中華民國政府播遷臺灣。

事實:
1949年國民黨人一夥隨從,其實是以難民的身份亡命台灣,因蔣介石仍銜有軍事佔領台灣的授權,故而被准予在台灣避難。

民國39年(西元1950年)6月25日韓戰爆發,國際局勢丕變,美國總統杜魯門於兩天後發表聲明:「本人已命令美國第七艦隊防止對臺灣之任何攻擊,同時本人並已請求臺灣之中國政府停止對大陸一切海空軍活動……至於臺灣未來地位之決定,應俟太平洋區域之安全恢復後或與日本締結和約時,或由聯合國予以考慮。」美國當時就臺灣地位提出此一主張,當係為避免其在韓戰爆發後的行動有干涉中國內政之嫌,但亦產生所謂「臺灣法律地位未定論」。杜魯門總統聲明次日(6月28日),中華民國外交部長葉公超立即就臺灣地位發表「臺灣屬於中國領土之一部分」的正式聲明,以正視聽。

事實:
韓戰爆發後,美國為防堵台灣被赤化,同時也不願看到,蔣介石藉機反攻復國頻天亂局,所以派遣美國第七艦隊巡航台灣海峽。至於臺灣未來最終地位之決定,應俟太平洋區域之安全恢復後,或與日本締結和約時,或由聯合國予以考慮。因此,台灣在戰後應有的最終法理定位,從那時起一直延宕懸而未決至今。

民國40年(西元1951 年)9月8日,戰時各同盟國與日本在美國舊金山舉行和會,簽署《對日和平條約》(Treaty of Peace with Japan)(史稱《舊金山和約》),正式結束戰爭狀態,並處理日本領土等相關問題。和會舉行當時,中國內戰未歇,韓戰方興未艾,國際情勢極為複雜。和會與會國家無法就邀請兩岸雙方何一方參加會議達成協議,以致艱苦抗戰8年、犧牲至少兩千萬軍民的中華民國,竟未能受邀參加舊金山和會。與會各國締約時達成共識,於《舊金山和約》第2條有關日本宣布放棄領土,包括臺灣、澎湖、千島群島、庫頁島、南冰洋及南沙群島等,皆採取「不言明日本歸還給何國」之體例,並授權當事國與日本另行簽訂條約,解決領土等問題。

事實:
1951年的國際社會,對中國内战的態度,無法凝聚普遍國際共識來決定,誰有權利和能力,代表單一中國聲音來切結和平條件。有些認為這個政府適合,有些認為另者合適,有些懷疑兩個無一符合。國際社會面臨, 一直等到他們能同意,在中國有一個,具備合法與威信的政府;就因中國內戰,和國際對中國意見分歧來處罰日本,它是錯誤、殘忍和愚蠢。另一種想法是,每一個盟國可以拒绝與日本簽定和平條約,除非它所選擇的中國政府也共同簽署;這將在日本造成怨恨,而在全世界遭受嚴重威脅,在最需要大團結當前,它將刺激並加重盟國的分裂。剩下的選擇就是,在沒有任何中國的共同簽署下,盟國廣泛地締結和平,讓日本與中國去締造他們的和平,當然,在條件上將會完全保障中國的權利和利益。

日本爰依該條規定,於民國41年(西元1952年)4月28日在台北與我國簽訂《中華民國與日本國間和平條約》(Treaty of Peace between the Republic of China and Japan),史稱《中日和約》。《中日和約》目的主要為:第一,正式終止戰爭狀態(戰爭行為已實際結束,日本也簽署《降伏文書》,但在形式上仍須有一和約以表述兩國戰爭狀態之終止);第二,確認戰後雙方關係(如處理領土、戰爭賠償、財產、人民國籍等問題)。

事實:
國共毛蔣雙方所代表的中國,雖然沒有派員出席舊金山和平會議,但中國應有的權益,都已完全被尊重且執行。和約第26條,中國被赋予權力和日本簽訂,與現有條約條款一致的和平條約。日本已分別與中華民國,於1952年4月28日簽署台北條約;與中華人民共和國,於1978年8月12日簽署中日和平友好條約。並且,在第21條,中國,沒有署名的必要,就獲得日本宣佈放棄〈第10條〉,日本在中國所有的特殊權利和利益,這與中華民國提議的要求吻合。 而且,不必署名,中國就自動獲得,第14 條(a) 2所載,確認其轄區所攫取日本財產的好處。舊金山合約完整保留,中國作為這場戰爭中,戰勝盟員一份子應有的權益。

《中日和約》第2條規定:「茲承認依照公曆1951年9月8日在美國舊金山市簽訂之對日和平條約第2條,日本國業已放棄對於臺灣及澎湖群島……之一切權利、權利名義與要求。」此條雖然仿照舊金山和約體例,並未明文規定臺灣與澎湖歸還中華民國,但中華民國正是此一雙邊和約之締約當事國,而第4條又承認民國30年以前,中日間所締結之一切條約(包括割讓台灣予日本的《馬關條約》在內),均因戰爭結果而歸於無效,故確認台灣為中華民國領土的意義至為明顯。此外,和約中有些條款更是以「台灣屬於中華民國」為前提,否則該條款即無意義,亦無法執行。例如如第3條關於日本在臺灣澎湖財產之處理,第10條關於臺灣澎湖居民均屬中華民國國民之認定等都是。

事實:
日本確實在台北條約第四條聲明:1941 年 12 月 9 日之前締結,日本與中國之間的所有條約、公約和協定,均因戰爭而失效。但緊接著在台北條約第五條特別指明:依據「舊金山條約」第 10 條的規定,日本放棄了在中國的一切特殊權利和利益,包括因 1901 年 9 月 7 日在北京簽署的辛丑條約、而衍生的一切利益和特權。這與1895年所簽署的馬關條約,時間相隔六年,毫無瓜葛、扯不上關係。

四、結論
中華民國政府自民國34年(西元1945年)恢復臺灣與澎湖列島之領土主權,並有效行使管轄權,至今已逾71年,中華民國之命運與臺灣之命運已密不可分。我政府依照憲法實施憲政,推行民主法治,於民國39年(西元1950年)開始辦理縣市長及縣市議員選舉、省議員選舉、民國59年(西元1970年)開始辦理增額中央民意代表選舉,民國79年(西元1990年)開始全面改選國會;民國85年(1996年)更舉行全民直選總統,將憲法「主權在民」的觀念予以徹底實現,將自由、民主、法治、人權的共同信念皆推向嶄新的里程碑。

事實:
今日台灣因自解嚴後力行民主,選舉總統、各級政府與民意代表,確實是個民主典範的政治實體。有人因此而自己認為,是一個主權在民的民主國家,其實未然。因為台灣目前所擁有,叫人民主權Popular Sovereignty屬於廣泛的基本人權,但不是國際社所要求的領土主權Territory Sovereignty 、或國家主權National Sovereignty。台灣仍須經由戰爭法,從主要佔領權國美國,獲得許可授權後,才能依法逐步漸進,擁有台灣的領土主權。

目前在台灣也些專家學者,為了附合當政者的心意,一會兒說台灣地位未定,ㄧ會兒說台灣地位已定。他們總以為憑著台灣的民主化,就可以自然演進、蛻變成主權獨立的國家。他們說昔日主權未定,現在因社會民主化了,就主權已定。可是,他們卻也始終說不清、拿不出中華民國台灣,這個國家是幾時獨立、是何年何月何日建國,可有憲法清楚標明國土範圍?好了,當您逐一檢視過外交部,有關台灣的國際法地位說帖後,是否同意該帖所說的、或是您也覺得這個騙很大喔!靜候外交部回文賜教!

謝鎮寬
加州、海沃

A big lie of the diplomatic notes
Respecting a reply from MOFA

28 April 2022 is the 70th anniversary of the San Francisco Peace Treaty ratified day, and Taiwan's final international status has once again become the focus of public opinion. China's Taiwan Affairs Office said it has sovereignty over Taiwan. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China said that Taiwan, the ROC, is a sovereign and independent country, and Taiwan has never been part of the PRC. It seems that these two governments, which claim to represent China, are vying for Taiwan's territorial sovereignty; but the PRC, from its founding to the present, has absolutely nothing to do with Taiwan. Relying on it, the UN Resolution 2758 on October 25, 1971, which determined that the PRC was the only legitimate government representative of China in the world and expelled the UN seat illegally occupied by the representative of Chiang Kai-shek on the spot. The resolution did not touch Taiwan's sovereignty in the slightest. Although the PRC legally inherited and the ROC’s Chinese seat in the UN, it did not obtain the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu, because the ROC never had Taiwan's sovereignty.

However, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the ROC is still marked on its official website. The statement announced on June 20, 2017:
Post on "Taiwan's Status in International Law". Now let me examine one by one, the truth and falsehood of what they say.

I. Introduction
"Taiwan is the territory of the Republic of China" is a claim that absolutely conforms to history and international law. On September 9, the 34th year of the Republic of China (1945 AD), the government of the Republic of China accepted the defeat of Japan in Nanjing and surrendered. a province, three months later and the Taiwanese people's nationality of the Republic of China will be restored, retroactive to October 25, 1934. In other words, the Republic of China has exercised its territorial sovereignty over Taiwan in law (de jure) and de facto (de facto) since October 25, 2009. This fact of restoring sovereignty was confirmed after the Republic of China and Japan signed the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty on April 28, 1952.

FACT:
On October 25, 1945, the surrender ceremony held at the Taipei Public Hall was based on the No. 1 General Order issued by General MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces. General He Yingqin, appointed by CKS as the fully authorized representative of surrender, he appointed Chen Yi to chair and accept the surrender ceremony of General Ando Rikichi, the Japanese governor in Taiwan and the commander of the 10th Army of the Japanese Army. Because the war was not over, the Peace Conference was not held in San Francisco until six years later then the peace treaty was signed. The so-called Taiwan Restoration is actually a nonsense to deceive the world and steal its name; Taiwan has not been liberated at all, but has been traped to a more miserable military occupation by massacres. The Taipei Treaty signed on April 28, 1952, known as the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty, aimed to put an end to the war between Japan and China, and said nothing about the transfer of Taiwan's sovereignty.

2. The legal basis and facts for the return of Taiwan's sovereignty to the Republic of China
In the 21st year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty (1895 AD), the Qing court was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War. On April 17 of the same year, China and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki in Shimonoseki, Japan, Article 2 of which stipulated that China should cede the Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan and its affiliated islands and the Penghu Islands to Japan. On June 2, representatives of China and Japan, Li Jingfang and Huashan Ziji, went through the formalities for the cession and takeover of Taiwan, Penghu, and its affiliated islands on a Japanese warship off Keelung. Start 50 years of colonial rule.

FACT:
The Treaty of Shimonoseki is that China authorized as early as 1895 to formally cede the full sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan in perpetuity; it is not the land that Japan plundered in World War II.

After the end of WWII, Taiwan's sovereignty was returned to the ROC from Japan. This change stemmed from Japan's war of aggression against China. On July 7, the 26th year of the ROC (1937 AD), the Japanese army launched the Lugouqiao Incident in Wanping County, Hebei Province, undeclaring war against China. Ten days later, Chairman CKS of the Nationalist Government delivered a speech, declaring his determination to fight the war to the end. In the 30th year of the ROC (AD 1941), Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 8. The US Navy suffered heavy casualties. The US immediately declared war on Japan. The government of the ROC immediately declared war on the Axis powers such as Japan, Germany and Italy the next day, and announced that all treaties, agreements and contracts between China and Japan would be abolished; the Treaty of Shimonoseki was of course included.

FACT:
International treaties are not abolished unilaterally, they must be ratified by an exchange of notes. Shimonoseki was signed in 1895 and is still in effect even today. In the Treaty of Taipei, or the Sino-Japanese Agreement, and the San Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan clearly stated that Japan only gave up the privileges and interests it had enjoyed in China since the 1901 Xin Chou Treaty.

On December 1, the 32nd year of the Republic of China (1943 AD), China, the United States, and the United Kingdom issued the "Cairo Declaration", which specifically demanded that after the war Japan "must return the four northeastern provinces, Taiwan and Penghu stolen from China to the Republic of China. (…all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China.)

FACT:
The Cairo Declaration is just an intent of the three leaders, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-shek on how to plan Japan's territory after the war. Although CKS has repeatedly demanded that the sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu be returned to China, but Taiwan and Penghu were not lands plundered by Japan during WWII, and the territories that were formally ceded according to the Treaty of Shimonoseki, there was no resolution and no signatures in the final talks. On the day of the release, no one was present, but it was broadcasted by news via Cairo Radio.

On July 26, the 34th year of the Republic of China (1945), the leaders of China, the US, and the UK issued the Potsdam Proclamation, Article 8 of which reiterated that terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out….
On August 14, the 34th year of the ROC (1945 AD), Japan accepted the Potsdam Proclamation, announcing its unconditional surrender, and on September 2 of the same year, the Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed on the Missouri warship of the US. Article 1 of the instrument states: "We...hereby accept the provisions in the declaration issued by the heads of the Governments of the United States, China, and Great Britain on July 26, 1945, at Potsdam, and subsequently adhered to by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics…” In other words, the Potsdam Declaration, Article 8 Article 1 The conditions of the Cairo Declaration must be implemented, which is what Japan promised in the "Submission Instrument". Of course, Japan must fulfill it and return the four northeastern provinces, Taiwan, and Penghu to the ROC.

FACT:
The Potsdam Conference was mainly a peace conference held to end the European Theater. The second half of the meeting was held on July 26, 1945, to discuss how to end the Pacific Theater. CKS did not present at all, so the issue of the ownership of Taiwan and Penghu sovereignty was not discussed at the scene. Article 8 of the Potsdam Proclamation reiterates that "the conditions of the Cairo Declaration must be implemented. It refers to the territorial scope of Japan, and Japan's sovereignty must be limited to Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido, Shikoku, and other small islands determined by the governments of the three countries." Japan's surrender is Japan's confirmation that it is willing to accept it unconditionally in accordance with the Potsdam Announcement and listen to the decisions of the Allies and let it be dealt with at will.

Regardless of the Cairo Declaration, the Potsdam Proclamation or the Japanese Surrender Instrument, the ROC regards it as a legal document with the effect of a treaty. In addition to incorporating the Cairo Declaration and the Potsdam Proclamation into the Treaties and Other International Agreements Series, the U.S. government also included the Japanese Surrender Instrument in the Statutes of the United States. at Large). Therefore, in terms of international law, the Cairo Declaration, the Potsdam Proclamation, and the Japanese Surrender Instrument are all binding legal documents.

FACTS:
Regardless of the Cairo Declaration, the Potsdam Proclamation, the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, the U.S. Treaty, and a compilation of other international agreements, there is absolutely no word mention of the sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu to China or the ROC.

On October 25, the 34th year of the ROC (1945), the Governor of Japan and Taiwan surrendered to the government of the ROC in Taipei. On the same day, the government of the ROC announced the restoration of sovereignty over Taiwan and the Penghu Islands. Afterwards, the government of the ROC began to effectively govern Taiwan, Penghu, and its affiliated islands: On January 12, 1945, the ROC nationality of Taiwan and Penghu residents was reinstated, and it took effect on October 25, 1945. Another example is the implementation of a democratic system. For example, in the 35th year of the ROC (AD 1946), the provincial and county council elections were held in Taiwan. The following year, the Office of the Chief Executive of Taiwan Province was changed to the Taiwan Provincial Government.

FACT:
On January 12, 1946, the Executive Yuan of the Government of the ROC ordered the change of the nationality of Taiwanese without authorization. It was an international war criminal act. At that time, it was protested by the British Embassy in China because the peace conference had not yet been held. Taiwan was still a Japanese territory at that time. China was only authorized to military Occupied. See, CKS even sent a telegram on January 12, 1949, scolding Chen Cheng for not touting. Chiang said the legal status and sovereignty of Taiwan before a peace conference it was only a trust land. Claiming Taiwan as our last fortress of the suppression of the Communist Party and the basis of national rejuvenation, wouldn't it make people with a little common sense at home and abroad laugh at it as madness.

In December of the 38th year of the ROC (1949 AD), the Central Government of the ROC relocated to Taiwan. From 1945 to 1949, the international community had no objection to the effective exercise of sovereignty by the ROC over Taiwan. For example, on January 5, 1950, US President Harry Truman issued a statement saying: "In the Cairo Joint Statement of December 1, 1943, the US President, the British Prime Minister and the Chinese President declared that their purpose was to return the territory such as Formosa (Taiwan) Japan stole from China back to the ROC. The US government declared in the Potsdam Proclamation that the terms of the Cairo Declaration should be implemented. These terms were accepted by Japan when Japan surrendered. Following the above declaration, Formosa was handed over to Chairman CKS. For the past four years, the US and other allies have accepted China's exercise of power on the island."

FACT:
The public statement issued by President Truman on January 5, 1950, aimed at showing goodwill to China and conveying that the US would not intervene in the Chinese civil war. Although the U.S. will continue to provide economic assistance to Taiwan, the U.S. military aid and advice will cease. This expresses to the international community that in the face of China’s new changing situation, the U.S. reiterates its open-door policy toward China and does not acquire any sphere of influence within China. Or establish a foreign control system without acquiring special rights or privileges within China. However, Truman's "stand-by statement" of January 5, 1950, was overwritten by his "undecided statement of sovereignty" of Taiwan on June 27, 1950. Whether it is the Cairo Public Statement, the Potsdam Proclamation, or the surrender instrument of Japan, they are all dealing with the discussion process after the end of the war in Japan, and the San Francisco contract is the conclusion.

Seven years after Taiwan's retrocession, the "Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty" signed by the ROC and Japan in 1952 was only a treaty to reconfirm the return of Taiwan's territorial sovereignty to the ROC. In fact, whether the peace treaty is signed or not does not affect the sovereignty of the ROC over Taiwan, but only the development of normal diplomatic relations between the ROC and Japan after the war. When the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty was signed, the people of Taiwan were already nationals of the ROC and had already celebrated Taiwan's retrocession seven times.

FACT:
The signing of the SFPT is of course seriously related to the final legal status that Taiwan should have. To misinterpret the surrender ceremony as the retrocession of Taiwan is truly a shame for those in Taiwan who have no concept of international law.

3. "SFPT", "Sino-Japan Peace Treaty" and Taiwan's Sovereignty Attribution
After the end of WWII, a civil war broke out in China. In the 37th year of the ROC (1948), the war situation was reversed, and the CCP gradually gained an advantage. On October 1, the 38th year of the Republic of China (1949 AD), the CCP announced the founding of the PRC; in December of the same year, the ROC government relocated to Taiwan.

FACT:
In 1949, the entourage of the KMT people went to Taiwan as refugees. Because CKS still had the authorization to occupy Taiwan by military, they were granted asylum in Taiwan.

In the 39th year of the ROC (1950), the Korean War broke out on June 25, and the international situation changed. A statement issued two days later: " Accordingly I have ordered the 7th Fleet to prevent any attack on Formosa. As a corollary of this action, I am calling upon the Chinese Government on Formosa to cease all air and sea operations against the mainland. The 7th Fleet will see that this is done. The determination of the future status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations.” The US was making this claim on Taiwan's status should be made to avoid the suspicion of interfering in China's internal affairs in its actions after the outbreak of the Korean War. However, the so-called "undetermined legal status of Taiwan" also arises. The day after President Truman's statement (June 28), the ROC Foreign Minister George KC Yeh immediately stated on Taiwan's status that "Taiwan belongs to China's territory” to ensure a correct understanding of the facts.

FACT:
After the outbreak of the Korean War, to prevent Taiwan from being communized, the US did not want to see CKS taking the opportunity to counterattack and restore the country to the chaos, so it dispatched the US Seventh Fleet to patrol the Taiwan Strait. As for the final status of Taiwan in the future, it should be considered by the UN after security in the Pacific region is restored, or when a peace treaty is concluded with Japan. Therefore, the final legal status that Taiwan should have after the war has been unresolved since then.

On September 8, the 40th year of the ROC (1951), the wartime Allies and Japan held a peace meeting in San Francisco, USA. Signed the Treaty of Peace with Japan (historically known as the San Francisco Peace Treaty), officially end the state of war and deal with related issues such as Japanese territory. When the Peace Conference was held, the Chinese civil war had not ended, and the Korean war is in the ascendant, and the international situation is extremely complicated. The countries participating in the peace conference cannot decide whether to invite either side of the two sides of the strait to participate in the conference. An agreement was reached, so that the ROC, which had fought hard for 8 years and sacrificed at least 20 million soldiers and civilians, was not invited to participate in the San Francisco Peace Conference. The participating countries reached a consensus when they signed the treaty, and Japan announced the renunciation of its territorial status in Article 2 of the SFPT, including Taiwan, Penghu, the Thousand Islands, Sakhalin, the Antartic Sea and the Spratly Islands, all adopt the "No specifying the recipient Japan will give to”. It only authorized the countries concerned to sign separate treaties with Japan to resolve territorial and other issues.

FSCT:
In 1951, the international community's attitude towards China's civil war was unable to gather a general international consensus to decide who had the right and ability to represent a single Chinese voice to cut the peace conditions. Some think this government is suitable, some think the other is suitable, and some doubt that neither is suitable. The international community faces, until they can agree, that there is a legitimate and prestige government in China; it would be wrong, cruel, and stupid to punish Japan for the civil war in China and the international differences of opinion on China. Another idea is that each ally could refuse to sign a peace treaty with Japan unless the Chinese government of its choice also co-signs it; this would create resentment in Japan and a serious threat around the world, at a time when great unity is most needed, It will stimulate and aggravate the division of the Allies. The remaining option is for the Allies to make peace widely without any Chinese co-signature, and let Japan and China make their peace, on condition of course that China's rights and interests will be fully guaranteed.

In accordance with the provisions of this article, Japan signed the "ROC-Japan Agreement" with my country in Taipei on April 28, 1952, the 41st year of the ROC. The Treaty of Peace between the ROC and Japan, known as the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty. The main purposes of the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty are: first, to formally end the war status (the act of war has actually ended, and Japan has signed the "Submission Instrument", but in the form of a peace treaty to express the termination of the state of war between the two countries); second, confirming the relationship between the two parties after the war (such as dealing with territory, war compensation, financial issues such as property, nationality of the people, etc.)

FACT:
Although ROC/KMT represented by the CKS, the PRC/CCP represented by Mao did not send personnel to attend the San Francisco Peace Conference, China's due rights and interests have been fully respected and implemented. In Article 26 of the Peace Treaty, China is empowered to sign a peace treaty with Japan that is consistent with the terms of the existing treaty. Japan has signed the Taipei Treaty with the Republic of China on April 28, 1952; and the People's Republic of China, signed the Sino-Japanese Treaty of Peace and Friendship on August 12, 1978. Moreover, in Article 21, China, without the need for a signature, obtained Japan's renunciation of "Article 10", all of Japan's special rights and interests in China, which is consistent with the requirements proposed by the Republic of China. Moreover, without the need to sign, China automatically obtains, as set out in Article 14(a) 2, the benefits of acknowledging the seizure of Japanese property in its jurisdiction. The San Francisco contract is fully preserved, and China has the right to be a member of the victorious alliance in this war.

Article 2 of the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty stipulates: "It is hereby acknowledged that it was signed in San Francisco, USA on September 8, 1951, according to the Gregorian calendar. Article 2 of the Peace Treaty with Japan, Japan has renounced all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores.” Although, this article is modeled on the style of the SFPT, it does not expressly stipulate that Taiwan and Penghu should be returned to the ROC, but the ROC is a party to this bilateral peace treaty, and Article 4 recognizes that 30 years before the ROC, all treaties concluded between China and Japan (including the Treaty of Shimonoseki which ceded Taiwan to Japan) were concluded due to war. The result is invalid, so the significance of affirming Taiwan as the territory of the ROC is obvious. In addition, some clauses in the treaty, is even more premised that "Taiwan belongs to the ROC", otherwise the clause is meaningless and unenforceable. For example, as Article 3 deals with the handling of Japanese property in Penghu, Taiwan, and Article 10 deals with the fact that all residents of Penghu, Taiwan are nationals of the ROC identification and so on are all.

FACT:
Japan did declare in Article 4 of the Taipei Treaty: “It is recognized that all treaties, conventions and agreements concluded before December 9, 1941, between Japan and China have become null and void as a consequence of the war.” But then it was specifically stated in Article 5 of the Taipei Treaty: “It is recognized that under the provisions of Article 10 of the San Francisco Treaty, Japan has renounced all special rights and interests in China, including all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on September 7, 1901, and all annexes, notes, and documents supplementary thereto, and has agreed to the abrogation in respect to Japan of the said protocol, annexes, notes and documents.” This has nothing to do with the Shimonoseki Treaty signed in 1895, there are six years apart.

 4. Conclusion
Since the 34th year of the ROC (1945 AD), the government of the ROC has restored the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands and has effectively exercised jurisdiction. It has been more than 71 years since then. The fate of the ROC and the fate of Taiwan are inseparable. Our government implements constitutional administration in accordance with the Constitution and promotes democracy and the rule of law. In the 39th year of the ROC (1950 AD), the election of county mayors and county and city councils, provincial councils’ elections, and the 59th year of the ROC (1970 AD) began to handle the election of additional central public opinion representatives. In 79 years of the ROC (1990 AD), the National Assembly began to be fully re-elected; in 1985 (1996), a direct election of the president was held, which fully realized the concept of "sovereignty in the people" in the Constitution and the common ground of freedom, democracy, rule of law and human rights. Faith is pushed to a new milestone.

FACT:
Today, because Taiwan has practiced democracy since the lifting of the Martial law, it elects a president, various levels of government and representatives of public opinion. It is indeed a political entity that is a model of democracy. Because of this, some people think that it is a democratic country with sovereignty of the people, but this is not the case. Because what Taiwan currently has, Popular Sovereignty is a broad basic human right, but it is not the Territory Sovereignty or National Sovereignty required by the international community. Taiwan still must go through the laws of war and obtain permission and authorization from the United States, the main occupying power, before it can gradually acquire Taiwan's territorial sovereignty in accordance with the law.

At present, there are also some experts and scholars in Taiwan. To conform to the wishes of those in power, they say that Taiwan's status is undecided for a while, and that Taiwan's status has been determined for a while. They always think that with the democratization of Taiwan, they can naturally evolve and transform into a sovereign and independent country. They say that in the past, sovereignty was undetermined, but now that society is democratized, sovereignty has been determined. However, they still can't tell, and can't come up with the ROC Taiwan. When did this country become independent, what year, what month, and what day was it established? Can there be a constitution that clearly indicates the scope of the country? Well, after you have checked the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' posts about Taiwan's international legal status, do you agree with what it said, or do you think what it said is a big scam? Respecting a reply from MOFA!

John Hsieh
Hayward, California

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